Coal

Coal
Sedimentary rock
Coal anthracite.jpg
Composition
Primarycarbon
Secondary

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes. The geological processes take place over millions of years.[2]

Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. The extraction of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change.[3]

Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining. Since 1983, the world's top coal producer has been China.[4] In 2015 China produced 3.747 billion tonnes of coal – 48% of 7.861 billion tonnes world coal production. In 2015 other large producers were United States (813 million tonnes), India (678), European Union (539) and Australia (503).[4] In 2010 the largest exporters were Australia with 328 million tonnes (27% of world coal export) and Indonesia with 316 million tonnes (26%),[5] while the largest importers were Japan with 207 million tonnes (18% of world coal import), China with 195 million tonnes (17%) and South Korea with 126 million tonnes (11%).[6]

Etymology

The word originally took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula(n), which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *g(e)u-lo- "live coal".[7] Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, and the Irish word gual is also a cognate via the Indo-European root.[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Steenkool
العربية: فحم حجري
aragonés: Carbón
armãneashti: Cârbuni
অসমীয়া: কয়লা
asturianu: Carbón
Aymar aru: K'illima
azərbaycanca: Daş kömür
বাংলা: কয়লা
Bahasa Banjar: Batu arang
Bân-lâm-gú: Thô͘-thoàⁿ
беларуская: Вугаль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вугаль
भोजपुरी: कोइला
български: Въглища
bosanski: Ugalj
brezhoneg: Glaou
català: Carbó
čeština: Uhlí
Cymraeg: Glo
Deitsch: Kohl
Deutsch: Kohle
Diné bizaad: Tsékǫʼ
eesti: Kivisüsi
español: Carbón
Esperanto: Terkarbo
euskara: Harrikatz
فارسی: زغال‌سنگ
føroyskt: Kol
français: Charbon
furlan: Cjarbon
Gaeilge: Gual
Gàidhlig: Gual
galego: Carbón
한국어: 석탄
հայերեն: Ածուխ
हिन्दी: कोयला
hrvatski: Ugljen
Ido: Karbono
Bahasa Indonesia: Batu bara
Ирон: Æвзалы
íslenska: Kol
italiano: Carbone
עברית: פחם
Basa Jawa: Batu bara
қазақша: Көмір
Kiswahili: Makaa mawe
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chabon
Кыргызча: Көмүр
лакку: ХъуручӀ
Latina: Carbo
latviešu: Akmeņogles
lietuvių: Akmens anglis
Limburgs: Sjteekoal
lumbaart: Carbun
magyar: Kőszén
македонски: Јаглен
മലയാളം: കൽക്കരി
मराठी: कोळसा
Bahasa Melayu: Arang batu
монгол: Нүүрс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကျောက်မီးသွေး
Nāhuatl: Teconalli
Nederlands: Steenkool
नेपाली: कोइला
नेपाल भाषा: ह्यंग्वा
日本語: 石炭
Nordfriisk: Kööl
norsk: Kull
norsk nynorsk: Kol
Novial: Karbone
occitan: Carbon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Koʻmir
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੋਲਾ
پنجابی: کوئلہ
Picard: Carbon
português: Carvão mineral
română: Cărbune
Runa Simi: K'illimsa
саха тыла: Таас чох
Scots: Coal
shqip: Qymyri
sicilianu: Cravuni
Simple English: Coal
slovenčina: Uhlie
slovenščina: Premog
Soomaaliga: Dhuxul Dhagax
српски / srpski: Угаљ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ugljen
Basa Sunda: Batubara
suomi: Kivihiili
Tagalog: Karbon (bato)
தமிழ்: நிலக்கரி
తెలుగు: బొగ్గు
тоҷикӣ: Ангишт
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ho'ose
Türkçe: Kömür
українська: Вугілля
اردو: کوئلہ
vèneto: Carbon
Tiếng Việt: Than đá
walon: Hoye
文言:
Winaray: Uring
吴语:
粵語:
中文: