## Closed and exact differential forms |

In
**closed form** is a
*α* whose
*dα* = 0), and an **exact form** is a differential form, *α*, that is the exterior derivative of another differential form *β*. Thus, an *exact* form is in the *
image* of

For an exact form *α*, *α* = *dβ* for some differential form *β* of one-lesser degree than *α*. The form *β* is called a "potential form" or "primitive" for *α*. Since *d*^{2} = 0, *β* is not unique, but can be modified by the addition of the differential of a two-step-lower-order form.

Because *d*^{2} = 0, any exact form is automatically closed. The question of whether *every* closed form is exact depends on the

- examples
- examples in low dimensions
- poincaré lemma
- formulation as cohomology
- application in electrodynamics
- notes
- footnotes
- references

A simple example of a form which is closed but not exact is the 1-form given by the derivative of
^{
[note 1]} Since is not actually a function (see the next paragraph) is not an exact form. Still, has vanishing derivative and is therefore closed.

Note that the argument is only defined up to an integer multiple of since a single point can be assigned different arguments , , etc. We can assign arguments in a locally consistent manner around , but not in a globally consistent manner. This is because if we trace a loop from counterclockwise around the origin and back to , the argument increases by . Generally, the argument changes by

over a counter-clockwise oriented loop .

Even though the argument is not technically a function, the different *local* definitions of at a point differ from one another by constants. Since the derivative at only uses local data, and since functions that differ by a constant have the same derivative, the argument has a globally well-defined derivative "".^{
[note 2]}

The upshot is that is a one-form on that is not actually the derivative of any well-defined function . We say that is not *exact*. Explicitly, is given as:

- ,

which by inspection has derivative zero. Because has vanishing derivative, we say that it is *closed*.

This form generates the de Rham cohomology group meaning that any closed form is the sum of an exact form and a multiple of where accounts for a non-trivial contour integral around the origin, which is the only obstruction to a closed form on the punctured plane (locally the derivative of a