Closed and exact differential forms
For an exact form α, α = dβ for some differential form β of degree one less than that of α. The form β is called a "potential form" or "primitive" for α. Since d2 = 0, β is not unique, but can be modified by the addition of the differential of a form with degree two less.
Because d2 = 0, any exact form is necessarily closed. The question of whether every closed form is exact depends on the
A simple example of a form which is closed but not exact is the 1-form given by the derivative of
Note that the argument is only defined up to an integer multiple of since a single point can be assigned different arguments , , etc. We can assign arguments in a locally consistent manner around , but not in a globally consistent manner. This is because if we trace a loop from counterclockwise around the origin and back to , the argument increases by . Generally, the argument changes by
over a counter-clockwise oriented loop .
Even though the argument is not technically a function, the different local definitions of at a point differ from one another by constants. Since the derivative at only uses local data, and since functions that differ by a constant have the same derivative, the argument has a globally well-defined derivative "".[note 2]
The upshot is that is a one-form on that is not actually the derivative of any well-defined function . We say that is not exact. Explicitly, is given as:
which by inspection has derivative zero. Because has vanishing derivative, we say that it is closed.
This form generates the de Rham cohomology group meaning that any closed form is the sum of an exact form and a multiple of where accounts for a non-trivial contour integral around the origin, which is the only obstruction to a closed form on the punctured plane (locally the derivative of a