A clock is an instrument used to measure, keep, and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units: the day, the lunar month, and the year. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the millennia.

Some predecessors to the modern clock may be considered as "clocks" that are based on movement in nature: A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface. There is a range of duration timers, a well-known example being the hourglass. Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments. A major advance occurred with the invention of the verge escapement, which made possible the first mechanical clocks around 1300 in Europe, which kept time with oscillating timekeepers like balance wheels.[1][2][3][4]

A silent instrument missing such a striking mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece.[5] In general usage today, a "clock" refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time. Watches and other timepieces that can be carried on one's person are often distinguished from clocks.[6]Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished. The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock. A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. The electric clock was patented in 1840. The development of electronics in the 20th century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all.

The timekeeping element in every modern clock is a harmonic oscillator, a physical object (resonator) that vibrates or oscillates at a particular frequency.[2]This object can be a pendulum, a tuning fork, a quartz crystal, or the vibration of electrons in atoms as they emit microwaves.

Clocks have different ways of displaying time, connected to its internal clockwork type: Analog clocks usually indicate time using angles. Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time. Two numeric display formats are commonly used on digital clocks: 24-hour notation and 12-hour notation. Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays. For convenience, distance, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks present the time as sounds. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch. Some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. The evolution of the technology of clocks continues today. The study of timekeeping is known as horology.



The word clock is derived (via Dutch, Northern French, and Medieval Latin) from the Celtic words clagan and clocca meaning "bell".

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Сыхьат
Alemannisch: Uhr
العربية: ساعة (آلة)
aragonés: Reloch
asturianu: Reló
azərbaycanca: Saat
تۆرکجه: ساعات
বাংলা: ঘড়ি
Bân-lâm-gú: Sî-cheng
башҡортса: Сәғәт
беларуская: Гадзіннік
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гадзіньнік
български: Часовник
Boarisch: Uah
brezhoneg: Horolaj
català: Rellotge
Чӑвашла: Сехет (хатĕр)
čeština: Hodiny
Cymraeg: Cloc
dansk: Ur
Deutsch: Uhr
eesti: Kell
Ελληνικά: Ρολόι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Arlói
español: Reloj
Esperanto: Horloĝo
euskara: Erloju
فارسی: ساعت
Gaeilge: Clog
galego: Reloxo
گیلکی: ساعت
한국어: 시계
Hausa: Agogo
Հայերեն: Ժամացույց
Ilokano: Pagorasan
Bahasa Indonesia: Jam (alat)
interlingua: Horologio
Interlingue: Horloge
isiZulu: Iwashi
íslenska: Klukka
italiano: Orologio
עברית: שעון
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗಡಿಯಾರ
ქართული: საათი
kaszëbsczi: Zédżer
қазақша: Сағат
Kiswahili: Saa (ala)
Кыргызча: Саат
ລາວ: ໂມງ
Latina: Horologium
latviešu: Pulkstenis
Lëtzebuergesch: Auer
lietuvių: Laikrodis
lumbaart: Orelogg
македонски: Часовник
മലയാളം: ഘടികാരം
मराठी: घड्याळ
Bahasa Melayu: Jam (alat)
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cṳ̆ng
Mirandés: Reloijo
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နာရီ
Nederlands: Klok (tijd)
नेपाल भाषा: ईलचं
日本語: 時計
norsk nynorsk: Klokke
occitan: Relòtge
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Soat (asbob)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਘੜੀ
پنجابی: گھڑی
پښتو: گړيال
Patois: Klak
Plattdüütsch: Klock (Tiet)
polski: Zegar
português: Relógio
română: Ceas
Runa Simi: Pacha tupuq
русский: Часы
Scots: Knock
shqip: Ora
sicilianu: Rulòggiu
Simple English: Clock
سنڌي: گھڙيال
slovenčina: Hodiny
slovenščina: Ura (naprava)
Soomaaliga: Goorsheegto
کوردی: کاتژمێر
српски / srpski: Часовник
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sat (predmet)
Basa Sunda: Jam témbok
suomi: Kello
svenska: Ur
தமிழ்: கடிகாரம்
татарча/tatarça: Сәгать (корал)
తెలుగు: క్లాక్
Türkçe: Saat
українська: Годинник
اردو: گھنٹا
vèneto: Rolojo
vepsän kel’: Časud
Tiếng Việt: Đồng hồ
Võro: Kell
Winaray: Relo
吴语: 时钟
ייִדיש: זייגער
žemaitėška: Dzieguorios
中文: 時鐘