Cleopatra Selene II

Cleopatra Selene II
Queen consort of Numidia
Queen consort of Mauretania
Cleopatra Selene II bust, Cherchell, Algeria 4.jpg
An ancient Roman bust of either Cleopatra Selene II, Queen of Mauretania, or her mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria[1]
Born40 BC (presumed, exact date unknown)
Alexandria, Egypt
Diedc. 5 BC
Caesarea, Kingdom of Mauretania
SpouseJuba II of Numidia
IssuePtolemy, King of Mauretania
Full name
Cleopatra Selene
FatherMark Antony
MotherCleopatra VII Philopator

Cleopatra Selene II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη; summer 40 BC – c. 5 BC;[2] the numeration is modern), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt or Cleopatra VIII, was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony. She was the fraternal twin of Ptolemaic prince Alexander Helios. Her second name in ancient Greek means moon, also meaning the Titaness-Goddess of the Moon Selene, being the counterpart of her twin brother's second name Helios, meaning sun and the Titan-God of the Sun Helios. Cleopatra was born, raised and educated in Alexandria, Egypt. In 36 BC in the Donations of Antioch and in late 34 BC during the Donations of Alexandria, she was made ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya.[3] After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium and their suicides in Egypt in 30 BC, Cleopatra Selene was brought to Rome and placed in the household of Octavian's sister Octavia the Younger (a former wife of Antony). Cleopatra Selene was eventually married to Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and they produced a son and successor Ptolemy of Mauretania.

Early life

An ancient Roman sculpture of either Cleopatra Selene II or her mother Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt from the Archaeological Museum of Cherchel, Algeria[4]

Cleopatra Selene had two full brothers, her twin Alexander Helios and the younger Ptolemy Philadelphos. Her older half-brother, Caesarion, was the son of her mother and her first partner, Julius Caesar. Cleopatra most likely planned her only daughter to marry her eldest son Caesarion. Her father also had five other children with previous wives.

Her parents, Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII, were defeated by Octavian (future Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus), during a naval battle at Actium, Greece in 31 BC. In 30 BC, her parents committed suicide as Octavian and his army invaded Egypt. Octavian captured Cleopatra Selene and her brothers and took them from Egypt to Rome, parading them in heavy golden chains in his triumph. The chains were so heavy that the children were unable to walk in them, eliciting unexpected sympathy from many of the Roman onlookers. Octavian gave the siblings to his elder sister (Mark Antony's former wife) Octavia Minor to be raised in her household in Rome.[5]

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