Civil law (common law)

Civil law is a branch of the law.[1] In common law legal systems such as England and Wales, the law of Pakistan and the law of the United States, the term refers to non-criminal law.[1][2] The law relating to civil wrongs and quasi-contracts is part of the civil law,[3] as is law of property (other than property-related crimes, such as theft or vandalism).[4] Civil law may, like criminal law, be divided into substantive law and procedural law.[5] The rights and duties of persons (natural persons and legal persons) amongst themselves is the primary concern of civil law.[6] It is often suggested that civil proceedings are taken for the purpose of obtaining compensation for injury, and may thus be distinguished from criminal proceedings, whose purpose is to inflict punishment. However, exemplary damages or punitive damages may be awarded in civil proceedings. It was also formerly possible for common informers to sue for a penalty in civil proceedings.[7]

Because some courts have both civil and criminal jurisdiction, civil proceedings cannot be defined as those taken in civil courts.[8] In the United States, the expression "civil courts" is used as a shorthand for "trial courts in civil cases".[9]

In England, the burden of proof in civil proceedings is, in general—with a number of exceptions such as committal proceedings for civil contempt—proof on a balance of probabilities.[10] In civil cases in the law of the Maldives, the burden of proof requires the plaintiff to convince the court of the plaintiff's entitlement to the relief sought. This means that the plaintiff must prove each element of the claim, or cause of action in order to recover.[11]

Other Languages
aragonés: Dreito Civil
asturianu: Derechu civil
azərbaycanca: Mülki hüquq
Bân-lâm-gú: Bîn-hoat
български: Правен дял
català: Dret civil
dansk: Civilret
Deutsch: Zivilrecht
Ελληνικά: Αστικό Δίκαιο
español: Derecho civil
Esperanto: Civila juro
فارسی: حقوق مدنی
français: Droit civil
furlan: Dirit civîl
한국어: 민법
Bahasa Indonesia: Hukum sipil (sistem hukum)
italiano: Diritto civile
latviešu: Civiltiesības
lietuvių: Civilinė teisė
magyar: Polgári jog
Bahasa Melayu: Undang-undang sivil
Nederlands: Burgerlijk recht
日本語: 民法
occitan: Drech civil
português: Direito civil
română: Drept civil
Simple English: Civil law (common law)
slovenčina: Občianske právo
slovenščina: Civilno pravo
српски / srpski: Грађанско право
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Građansko pravo
svenska: Civilrätt
українська: Цивільне право
Tiếng Việt: Luật dân sự
中文: 民法