for broader coverage of this topic, see civil rights act.
civil rights act of 1964
an act to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the united states of america to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the attorney general to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the commission on civil rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a commission on equal employment opportunity, and for other purposes.
statutes at large
civil rights act of 1957
civil rights act of 1960
title 42—public health and welfare
introduced in the houseas h.r. 7152 byemanuel celler (d–ny) on june 20, 1963
committee consideration byjudiciary
passed the house on february 10, 1964 (290–130)
passed the senate on june 19, 1964 (73–27) with amendment
house agreed to senate amendment on july 2, 1964 (289–126)
signed into law by presidentlyndon b. johnsonon july 2, 1964
equal employment opportunity act of 1972
pregnancy discrimination act
civil rights act of 1991
no child left behind act
lilly ledbetter fair pay act of 2009
united states supreme court cases
heart of atlanta motel, inc. v. united states (1964)
katzenbach v. mcclung (1964)
united states v. johnson (1968)
newman v. piggie park enterprises, inc. (1968)
alexander v. holmes county board of education (1969)
griggs v. duke power co. (1971)
phillips v. martin marietta corp. (1971)
mcdonnell douglas corp. v. green (1973)
lau v. nichols (1974)
christiansburg garment co. v. equal employment opportunity commission (1978)
price waterhouse v. hopkins (1989)
alexander v. sandoval (2001)
burlington northern & santa fe railway co. v. white (2006)
ledbetter v. goodyear tire & rubber co. (2007)
ricci v. destefano (2009)
university of texas southwestern medical center v. nassar (2013)
equal employment opportunity commission v. abercrombie & fitch stores (2015)
green v. brennan (2016)
the civil rights act of 1964 (88–352, 78 241, enacted july 2, 1964) is a landmark civil rights and labor law in the united states that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. it prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, and racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
initially, powers given to enforce the act were weak, but these were supplemented during later years. congress asserted its authority to legislate under several different parts of the united states constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under article one (section 8), its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the fourteenth amendment, and its duty to protect voting rights under the fifteenth amendment.
the legislation had been proposed by presidentjohn f. kennedy in june 1963, but opposed by filibuster in the senate. after kennedy was assassinated on november 22, 1963, presidentlyndon b. johnson pushed the bill forward, which in its final form was passed in the u.s. congress by a senate vote of 73–27 and house vote of 289–126. the act was signed into law by president johnson on july 2, 1964, at the white house.
An act to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States of America to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.