Cincinnati

Cincinnati
City
City of Cincinnati
Images, from top, left to right: Cincinnati Skyline, John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge, Cincinnati Music Hall, Great American Ball Park, and the Findlay Market
Images, from top, left to right: Cincinnati Skyline, John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge, Cincinnati Music Hall, Great American Ball Park, and the Findlay Market
Flag of Cincinnati
Flag
Official seal of Cincinnati
Seal
Official logo of Cincinnati
Logo
Nickname(s): Cincy, The Fountain City, Paris of America, The Queen City, Albyon, The Nati, The "513”
Motto(s): Juncta Juvant (Lat. Strength in Unity)
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Cincinnati is located in the US
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Location in the United States of America
Coordinates: 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39.100; -84.517
CountryUnited States
StateOhio
CountyHamilton
Settled1788
Incorporated (town)January 1, 1802[1]
Incorporated (city)March 1, 1819[2]
Named forSociety of the Cincinnati
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • MayorJohn Cranley (D)
Area[3]
 • City79.54 sq mi (206.01 km2)
 • Land77.94 sq mi (201.86 km2)
 • Water1.60 sq mi (4.14 km2)
Elevation482 ft (147 m)
Population (2010)[4]
 • City296,943
 • Estimate (2017)[5]301,301
 • RankUS: 65th
 • Density3,809.9/sq mi (1,471.0/km2)
 • Metro2,137,406 (US: 28th)
 • DemonymCincinnatian
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes
Area code513
FIPS code39-15000[7]
GNIS feature ID1066650[8]
Websitecincinnati-oh.gov

Cincinnati (i/ NAT-ee or NAT-ee) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the government seat of Hamilton County.[9] Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers. The city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census.[10] With a population of 301,301, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States. It is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on percentages[11] and the 28th-biggest metropolitan statistical area in the U.S. Cincinnati is also within a single day's drive of two-thirds of the United States populace.[12]

In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860. As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded by some as the first purely "American" city.[13]

Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and influence from Europe than east coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation, economics, and the railroads, and St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration.

Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds, the oldest team in Major League Baseball; the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League; and the FC Cincinnati United Soccer League team. The city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.[14] Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as the "Paris of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, and Shillito Department Store.[15] Cincinnati is the birthplace of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States.

History

Cincinnati in 1812 with a population of 2,000[16]

Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville".[17] In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member;[18] which was in turn named for Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, a dictator in the early Roman Republic who saved Rome from a crisis, and then retired to farming because he didn't want to remain in power.[19]

The introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, and the city established commercial ties with St. Louis, Missouri and New Orleans downriver. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819.[20] Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831.[21] Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, and employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions. The city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850.[18]

Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River. The first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827.[22] In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached Toledo. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City.

Industrial development and Gilded years

After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered.[23] Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie.[22]

Cincinnati in 1841 with the Miami and Erie Canal in the foreground.

In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city.[23] By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year.[22]

In 1880, the city government completed the Cincinnati Southern Railway to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the only municipality-owned interstate railway in the United States.

In 1884, outrage over a manslaughter verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over 300 were injured.[24] The riots ended the regime of political bosses John Roll McLean and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati. In 1889, the Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to electric streetcars.[25]

During the Great Depression

An early rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and the large Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building. Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely due to a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. The flood in 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the Ohio valley. Afterward the city built protective flood walls.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Cincinnati
aragonés: Cincinnati
asturianu: Cincinnati
azərbaycanca: Sinsinnati
تۆرکجه: سینسینتی
bamanankan: Cincinnati
Bân-lâm-gú: Cincinnati
беларуская: Цынцынаці
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цынцынаці
български: Синсинати
brezhoneg: Cincinnati
català: Cincinnati
čeština: Cincinnati
Cymraeg: Cincinnati
dansk: Cincinnati
Deutsch: Cincinnati
eesti: Cincinnati
Ελληνικά: Σινσινάτι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cincinnati
español: Cincinnati
Esperanto: Cincinnati
euskara: Cincinnati
français: Cincinnati
Frysk: Cincinnati
Gàidhlig: Cincinnati, Ohio
galego: Cincinnati
한국어: 신시내티
Հայերեն: Ցինցինատի
Bahasa Indonesia: Cincinnati, Ohio
interlingua: Cincinnati (Ohio)
italiano: Cincinnati
עברית: סינסינטי
Basa Jawa: Cincinnati
ქართული: ცინცინატი
Kiswahili: Cincinnati, Ohio
Kreyòl ayisyen: Cincinnati, Ohio
Latina: Cincinnati
latviešu: Sinsinati
lietuvių: Sinsinatis
magyar: Cincinnati
Malagasy: Cincinnati
Bahasa Melayu: Cincinnati
монгол: Цинциннати
Nederlands: Cincinnati
нохчийн: Цинциннати
norsk: Cincinnati
norsk nynorsk: Cincinnati
occitan: Cincinnati
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Cincinnati
Piemontèis: Cincinnati
polski: Cincinnati
português: Cincinnati
Ripoarisch: Cincinnati
română: Cincinnati
русский: Цинциннати
саха тыла: Цинциннати
sardu: Cincinnati
Scots: Cincinnati
Seeltersk: Cincinnati
sicilianu: Cincinnati
Simple English: Cincinnati
slovenčina: Cincinnati
ślůnski: Cincinnati
српски / srpski: Синсинати
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cincinnati, Ohio
suomi: Cincinnati
svenska: Cincinnati
Türkçe: Cincinnati
українська: Цинциннаті
vepsän kel’: Cincinnati
Tiếng Việt: Cincinnati
Winaray: Cincinnati
粵語: 辛辛那提
中文: 辛辛那提