Christianity

Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and the savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Scriptures of Judaism, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament.[2] It is the world's largest religion with over 2.4 billion followers.[3]

Christianity began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the 1st century in the Roman province of Judea. Jesus' apostles and their followers spread around Syria, Levant, Europe, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Transcaucasia, Egypt, and Ethiopia, despite initial persecution. It soon attracted gentile God-fearers, which led to a departure from Jewish customs, and, after the Fall of Jerusalem, AD 70 which ended the Temple-based Judaism, Christianity as a religion began.

Emperor Constantine the Great converted to Christianity (312) and decriminalized it in the Roman Empire by the Edict of Milan (313), later convening the Council of Nicaea (325) where Early Christianity was consolidated into what would become the state church of the Roman Empire (380). The early history of Christianity's united communion before major schisms is sometimes referred to as the "Great Church". Oriental Orthodoxy and the Church of the East split after the Council of Chalcedon (451) over differences in Christology,[4] while the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism (1054), especially over the authority of the bishop of Rome. Similarly, Protestantism split in numerous denominations from the Catholic Church in the Reformation (16th century) over theological and ecclesiological disputes, most predominantly on the issue of justification and the primacy of the bishop of Rome. Following the Age of Discovery (15th–17th century), Christianity was spread into the Americas, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world via missionary work.[5][6][7]

Christianity remains culturally diverse in its Western and Eastern branches, as well as in its doctrines concerning justification and the nature of salvation, ecclesiology, ordination, and Christology. The four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church (1.3 billion/50.1 %), Protestantism (920 million/36.7 %), the Eastern Orthodox Church (260 million) and Oriental Orthodoxy (86 million/both together 11.9 %), amid various efforts toward unity (ecumenism).[8] Their creeds generally hold in common Jesus as the Son of God - the logos incarnated - who ministred, suffered, and died on a cross, but rose from the dead for the salvation of mankind; as referred to as the gospel, meaning the "good news", in the Bible (scripture). Describing Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John with the Jewish Old Testament as the gospel's respected background.

Christianity and Christian ethics played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization,[9][10][11][12][13] particularly around Europe from late antiquity and the Middle Ages. Despite a decline in Europe since the counterculture of the 1960s,[14] Christianity remains the dominant religion in the West, with about 70% of the population identifying as Christian.[15] Christianity is growing in Africa and Asia, the world's most populous continents.[16] However, Christians remain as a whole the most religious persecuted group in the world, especially around the Islamic world where it is "at near genocide levels".[17]

Etymology

In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers".[citation needed] Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as 'The Way' (της οδου), probably coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord."[18][note 2] According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" (Greek: Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch.[24] The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Greek: Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD.[1]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kristen
адыгабзэ: Чыристан дин
Afrikaans: Christendom
Alemannisch: Christentum
አማርኛ: ክርስትና
Ænglisc: Crīstendōm
العربية: مسيحية
aragonés: Cristianismo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ
armãneashti: Crișcinizmu
arpetan: Cristianismo
asturianu: Cristianismu
Avañe'ẽ: Hesu rape
azərbaycanca: Xristianlıq
تۆرکجه: مسیحیت
Bahasa Banjar: Kerestén
Bân-lâm-gú: Ki-tok-kàu
Basa Banyumasan: Kristen
башҡортса: Христианлыҡ
беларуская: Хрысціянства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Хрысьціянства
भोजपुरी: ईसाई धर्म
Bikol Central: Kristianismo
Bislama: Kristaniti
български: Християнство
Boarisch: Kristndum
bosanski: Kršćanstvo
brezhoneg: Kristeniezh
català: Cristianisme
Чӑвашла: Христианлăх
Cebuano: Kristiyanismo
čeština: Křesťanství
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Cristianismo
Cymraeg: Cristnogaeth
dansk: Kristendom
davvisámegiella: Risttalašvuohta
Deutsch: Christentum
ދިވެހިބަސް: މަސީހީދީން
dolnoserbski: Kśesćijaństwo
eesti: Kristlus
Ελληνικά: Χριστιανισμός
español: Cristianismo
Esperanto: Kristanismo
estremeñu: Cristianismu
euskara: Kristautasun
فارسی: مسیحیت
Fiji Hindi: Isai Dharam
føroyskt: Kristindómur
français: Christianisme
Frysk: Kristendom
furlan: Cristianesim
Gagauz: Hristianlık
Gàidhlig: Crìosdaidheachd
galego: Cristianismo
ГӀалгӀай: ЖIаргахой ди
贛語: 基督教
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Kristanvponn
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kî-tuk-kau
한국어: 기독교
Արեւմտահայերէն: Քրիստոնէութիւն
हिन्दी: ईसाई धर्म
hornjoserbsce: Křesćanstwo
hrvatski: Kršćanstvo
Ilokano: Kristianidad
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekristenan
interlingua: Christianismo
Interlingue: Cristianisme
Iñupiak: Krgatsonik
íslenska: Kristni
italiano: Cristianesimo
עברית: נצרות
Jawa: Kristen
Kabɩyɛ: Krɩstiyaniism
къарачай-малкъар: Христианлыкъ
ქართული: ქრისტიანობა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: عِیسائیت
қазақша: Христиандық
kernowek: Kristoneth
Kinyarwanda: Ubukirisitu
Kiswahili: Ukristo
Kongo: Kiyesu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Krisyanis
kurdî: Xiristiyanî
Кыргызча: Машаякчылык
Ladino: Kristianizmo
لۊری شومالی: دأرآسونه:مأسییأت
latviešu: Kristietība
Lëtzebuergesch: Chrëschtentum
lietuvių: Krikščionybė
Limburgs: Christendóm
lingála: Boklísto
Lingua Franca Nova: Cristianisme
Livvinkarjala: Hristianskoi usko
la .lojban.: xi'ojda
lumbaart: Cristianesim
मैथिली: ईसाई धर्म
македонски: Христијанство
Malagasy: Kristianisma
მარგალური: ქირსიანობა
مصرى: مسيحيه
مازِرونی: مسیحی دین
Bahasa Melayu: Kristian
Minangkabau: Kristen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gĭ-dók-gáu
Mirandés: Cristandade
мокшень: Кристозши
монгол: Христ итгэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ခရစ်ယာန်ဘာသာ
Nāhuatl: Cristianoyōtl
Nederlands: Christendom
Nedersaksies: Christendom
नेपाली: ईसाई धर्म
日本語: キリスト教
Napulitano: Crestianesemo
нохчийн: Керсталла
Nordfriisk: Krastendoom
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kreschenitii
norsk: Kristendom
norsk nynorsk: Kristendommen
Nouormand: Chrêtchienneté
Novial: Kristianisme
occitan: Cristianisme
олык марий: Христианлык
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xristian dini
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਸਾਈ ਧਰਮ
پنجابی: مسیحیت
Papiamentu: Kristianismo
پښتو: مسيحيت
Patois: Kristianiti
ភាសាខ្មែរ: គ្រិស្តសាសនា
Picard: Cristiannime
Piemontèis: Cristianésim
Tok Pisin: Lotu Kristen
Plattdüütsch: Christendom
português: Cristianismo
qırımtatarca: Hristianlıq
română: Creștinism
rumantsch: Cristianissem
русиньскый: Хрістіанство
русский: Христианство
саха тыла: Христианство
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱤᱥᱟᱹᱭ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ
Gagana Samoa: Kerisiano
संस्कृतम्: क्रैस्तमतम्
Seeltersk: Kristendum
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sekriste
sicilianu: Cristianèsimu
Simple English: Christianity
سنڌي: مسيحيت
SiSwati: Bukhristu
slovenčina: Kresťanstvo
slovenščina: Krščanstvo
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Хрїстїаньство
Soomaaliga: Masiixiyad
کوردی: مەسیحییەت
српски / srpski: Хришћанство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hrišćanstvo
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : Christianity
Basa Sunda: Kristen
svenska: Kristendom
Tagalog: Kristiyanismo
Taqbaylit: Tamasiḥit
татарча/tatarça: Христианлык
тоҷикӣ: Масеҳият
Türkçe: Hristiyanlık
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Kërëthänuɔɔi
українська: Християнство
اردو: مسیحیت
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مەسىھچىلىك
Vahcuengh: Geidoekgauq
vepsän kel’: Hristanuskond
Tiếng Việt: Kitô giáo
Volapük: Krit
Võro: Ristiusk
文言: 基督教
West-Vlams: Christndom
Winaray: Kristohanon
吴语: 基督宗教
Xitsonga: Vukreste
ייִדיש: קריסטנטום
粵語: 基督教
Zeêuws: Chrissendom
žemaitėška: Krėkštiuonībė
中文: 基督教