China

People's Republic of China

  • 中华人民共和国 (Chinese)
  • Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (Pinyin)
Motto: 
Anthem: 
Land controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
Land controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green.
CapitalBeijing
39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383
Largest cityShanghai (metropolitan area and urban area)[1][2]
Chongqing (city proper)[3]
Official languagesStandard Chinese[4][a]
Recognised regional languages
Official scriptSimplified Chinese[b]
Ethnic groups
Religion
See Religion in China
Demonym(s)Chinese
MembershipUN, WTO, SCO, APEC, BRICS, BCIM, G20
GovernmentUnitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic[7]
Xi Jinping[d]
• Premier
Li Keqiang
Li Zhanshu
Wang Yang
• First Secretary of the Party Secretariat
Wang Huning
Zhao Leji
• First Vice Premier
Han Zheng
Wang Qishan[e]
LegislatureNational People's Congress
Formation
c. 2070 BCE
221 BCE
1 January 1912
1 October 1949
4 December 1982
20 December 1999
Area
• Total
9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[f][11] (3rd)
• Water (%)
2.8%[g]
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase1,427,647,786 [13][14] (1st)
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852[15] (1st)
• Density
145[16]/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $27.309 trillion[17] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase $19,504[17] (73rd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $14.140 trillion[17] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $10,099[17] (67th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 46.7[18]
high
HDI (2018)Increase 0.758[19]
high · 85th
CurrencyRenminbi (yuan; ¥)[h] (CNY)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard Time)
Date format
Driving sideright[i]
Calling code+86
ISO 3166 codeCN
Internet TLD

China (Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; literally: 'Central State' or 'Middle Kingdom'), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.428 billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third-largest or the fourth-largest country by area.[j] Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces,[k] five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the world's first civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythical Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first Chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BCE until 220 CE, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty (618–907) and Northern Song (960–1127) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty. China, as a whole, was ravaged by feudal warlordism and Japan during World War II. The subsequent Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led nationalist government retreated to the island of Taiwan where it governed until 1996 when Taiwan transitioned to democracy. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed to this day.

China is a unitary one-party socialist republic and is one of the few existing socialist states. Political dissidents and human rights groups have denounced and criticized the Chinese government for human rights abuses, suppression of religious and ethnic minorities, censorship and mass surveillance, and cracking down on protests such as in 1989. The Chinese government says that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present economic level.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. According to official data, China's GDP in 2018 was 90 trillion Yuan ($13.5 trillion). Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP, and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity. China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, the People's Liberation Army, and the second-largest defense budget. The PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. Since 2019, China has the highest number of rich people in the world.[l] China has been characterized as a potential superpower, mainly because of its massive population, economy, and military.

Names

China
China (Chinese characters).svg
"China" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese中国
Traditional Chinese中國
Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó
Literal meaning"Middle" or "Central State"[20]
Alternate name
Simplified Chinese中华
Traditional Chinese中華
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá
Tibetan name
Tibetanཀྲུང་གོ་
Zhuang name
ZhuangCungguek
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptDumdadu ulus
Uyghur name
Uyghurجۇڭگو
Manchu name
Manchu scriptDulimbai Gurun
RomanizationDulimbai Gurun

The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves. It has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India.[21]

"China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation[m] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[n][21] Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn (چین), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna (चीन).[26] Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE).[27] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE), which existed as a state since the 9th century BC at the furthest west of ancient China.[28][27] Although this derivation is still given in various sources,[29] the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.[21] Other suggestions include the names for Yelang and the state of Jing (, another name for Chu).[27][30]

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó (中国), from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[o] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[p] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.[32] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians".[32] The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.[34]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Китай
Akan: China
Alemannisch: Volksrepublik China
Аҧсшәа: Китаи
العربية: الصين
armãneashti: China
অসমীয়া: চীন
авар: Чин
تۆرکجه: چین
Bali: Cino
bamanankan: China
বাংলা: গণচীন
Basa Banyumasan: Republik Rakyat Cina
беларуская: Кітай
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітай
भोजपुरी: चीन
Bislama: Jaena
български: Китай
Boarisch: Kina
bosanski: Kina
čeština: Čína
Chamoru: China
Chavacano de Zamboanga: China
Chi-Chewa: China
chiShona: China (nyika)
chiTumbuka: China
corsu: China
dansk: Kina
davvisámegiella: Kiinná
Deitsch: Tscheine
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނުކަރަ
डोटेली: चीन देश
ཇོང་ཁ: ཀྲུང་ཀོ
eesti: Hiina
Ελληνικά: Κίνα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cina
Esperanto: Ĉinio (ŝtato)
eʋegbe: China
فارسی: چین
Fiji Hindi: China
français: Chine
Frysk: Sina
Fulfulde: Ciina
furlan: Cine (stât)
ГӀалгӀай: Чинхойче
Gĩkũyũ: China
گیلکی: چین(آسیا)
ગુજરાતી: ચીન
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चीन
Hausa: Sin
Hawaiʻi: Kina
հայերեն: Չինաստան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Չինաստան
hornjoserbsce: China
hrvatski: Kina
Igbo: China
Ilokano: Tsina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণচীন
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Rakyat Tiongkok
interlingua: China
Interlingue: China
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓴᐃᓇ
Iñupiak: China
Ирон: Китай
isiXhosa: IShayina
isiZulu: IShayina
íslenska: Kína
italiano: Cina
Kabɩyɛ: Siini
kalaallisut: Kina
къарачай-малкъар: Къытай Халкъ Республика
ქართული: ჩინეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: چیٖن
қазақша: Қытай
Kinyarwanda: Ubushinwa
коми: Китай
Kongo: Sina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chin
kurdî: Çîn
Кыргызча: Кытай
latgaļu: Ķīna
latviešu: Ķīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Volleksrepublik China
Ligure: Cinn-a
Limburgs: China
lingála: Sína
Lingua Franca Nova: Xina
Livvinkarjala: Kitai
Luganda: Cayina
lumbaart: Cina
magyar: Kína
മലയാളം: ചൈന
Malti: Ċina
Māori: Haina
मराठी: चीन
მარგალური: ჩინეთი
مصرى: الصين
مازِرونی: چین
Bahasa Melayu: China
Mirandés: China
мокшень: Китай
монгол: Хятад улс
Nāhuatl: China
Dorerin Naoero: Tsiene
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jaina (matanitu)
Nedersaksies: Volksrippebliek China
नेपाली: चीन
नेपाल भाषा: चीन
Napulitano: Cina
Nordfriisk: China
Norfuk / Pitkern: Shiina
norsk: Kina
norsk nynorsk: Folkerepublikken Kina
олык марий: Китай
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚୀନ
Oromoo: Chaayinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy
Pälzisch: Schina
پنجابی: چین
Papiamentu: China
Перем Коми: Кина
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចិន
Piemontèis: Cin-a
Plattdüütsch: Volksrepubliek China
Ποντιακά: Κίνα
português: China
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay
qırımtatarca: Çin Halq Cumhuriyeti
reo tahiti: Tinitō
romani čhib: China
русский: Китай
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱪᱤᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Saina
Sängö: Sînä
sardu: Cina
Sesotho: Tjhaena
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tšhaena
Setswana: China
shqip: Kina
sicilianu: Cina
සිංහල: චීනය
سنڌي: چين
SiSwati: IShayina
slovenčina: Čína
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдинꙗнє
Soomaaliga: Shiinaha
Sranantongo: Sneysa
српски / srpski: Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kina
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : မိူင်းၶႄႇ
suomi: Kiina
svenska: Kina
Tagalog: Tsina
தமிழ்: சீனா
Taqbaylit: Ccinwa
татарча/tatarça: Кытай
తెలుగు: చైనా
tetun: Xina
lea faka-Tonga: Siaina
Tshivenda: China
Türkçe: Çin
Twi: China
тыва дыл: Кыдат
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Caina
удмурт: Китай
اردو: چین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
vepsän kel’: Kitai
Tiếng Việt: Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinän
West-Vlams: China
Xitsonga: Chayina
ייִדיש: כינע
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lachin
Sakizaya: China