Chimpanzee

Common chimpanzee[1]
Temporal range: 4–0 Ma [2]
Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (7068198095) (cropped).jpg
A eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Kibale National Park, Uganda
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Primates
Suborder:Haplorhini
Infraorder:Simiiformes
Family:Hominidae
Subfamily:Homininae
Tribe:Hominini
Genus:Pan
Species:
P. troglodytes
Binomial name
Pan troglodytes
(Blumenbach, 1775)
Subspecies

Pan troglodytes troglodytes
Pan troglodytes verus
Pan troglodytes ellioti
Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii

Pan troglodytes area.png
distribution of subspecies
1. Pan troglodytes verus (green)
2. P. t. ellioti (grey)
3. P. t. troglodytes (red)
4. P. t. schweinfurthii (blue)
Synonyms

Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775
Troglodytes troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1776)
Troglodytes niger E. Geoffroy, 1812
Pan niger (E. Geoffroy, 1812)Anthropopithecus troglodytes (Sutton, 1883)

The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee, or simply "chimp", is a species of great ape native to the forests and savannahs of tropical Africa. It has four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo (sometimes called the "pygmy chimpanzee") are classified in the genus Pan. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that Pan is a sister taxon to the human lineage and is humans' closest living relative.

The chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. It is larger and more robust than the bonobo, weighing 40–60 kg (88–132 lb) for males and 27–50 kg (60–110 lb) for females and standing 100 to 140 cm (3.3 to 4.6 ft). Its gestation period is eight months. The infant is weaned at about three years old, but usually maintains a close relationship with its mother for several years more. The chimpanzee lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The species lives in a strict male-dominated hierarchy, where disputes are generally settled without the need for violence. Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks, grass and leaves and using them for hunting and acquiring honey, termites, ants, nuts and water. The species has also been found creating sharpened sticks to spear small mammals.

The chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species. Between 170,000 and 300,000 individuals are estimated across its range. The biggest threats to the chimpanzee are habitat loss, poaching and disease. Chimpanzees appear in Western popular culture as stereotyped clown-figures, and have featured in entertainments such as chimpanzees' tea parties, circus acts and stage shows. They are sometimes kept as pets, though their strength and aggressiveness makes them dangerous in this role. Some hundreds have been kept in laboratories for research, especially in America. Many attempts have been made to teach languages such as American Sign Language to chimpanzees, with limited success.

Etymology

The English name "chimpanzee" is first recorded in 1738.[4] It is derived from Vili ci-mpenze[5] or Tshiluba language chimpenze, with a meaning of "ape".[6] The colloquialism "chimp" was most likely coined some time in the late 1870s.[7] The genus name Pan derives from the Greek god, while the specific name troglodytes was taken from the Troglodytae, a mythical race of cave-dwellers.[8][9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sjimpansee
brezhoneg: Chimpanze boutin
dansk: Chimpanse
eesti: Šimpans
español: Pan troglodytes
Esperanto: Ĉimpanzo
euskara: Txinpantze
føroyskt: Sjimpansa
français: Pan troglodytes
한국어: 침팬지
interlingua: Pan troglodytes
isiZulu: Ishimpanzi
italiano: Pan troglodytes
Kirundi: Imamfu
кырык мары: Шимпанзе
лакку: Шимпанзе
lingála: Mokómbósó
Nederlands: Chimpansee
Nedersaksies: Chimpansee
norsk: Sjimpanse
norsk nynorsk: Sjimpanse
олык марий: Шимпанзе
پنجابی: عام چمپینزی
português: Chimpanzé-comum
română: Pan troglodytes
Runa Simi: Hatun chimpansi
Simple English: Common chimpanzee
slovenčina: Šimpanz učenlivý
slovenščina: Navadni šimpanz
српски / srpski: Обична шимпанза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Obična čimpanza
suomi: Simpanssi
svenska: Schimpans
Tagalog: Chimpanzee
удмурт: Шимпанзе
文言: 黑猩猩
粵語: 黑猩猩
中文: 黑猩猩