Chicken

Chicken
Female pair.jpg
A rooster or cock (left) and hen (right)
Domesticated
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Galliformes
Family:Phasianidae
Genus:Gallus
Species:G. gallus
Subspecies:G. g. domesticus
Trinomial name
Gallus gallus domesticus
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of more than 19 billion as of 2011. There are more chickens in the world than any other bird.[1] Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food (consuming both their meat and eggs) and, more rarely, as pets. Originally raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period (fourth–second centuries BCE).[2][3]

Genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast Asia, East Asia,[4] and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India, the domesticated chicken was imported to Lydia in western Asia Minor, and to Greece by the fifth century BC.[5] Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, Babylonia, according to the annals of Thutmose III.[6][7][8]

Terminology

Didactic model of a chicken.

In the UK and Ireland, adult male chickens over the age of one year are primarily known as cocks, whereas in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, they are more commonly called roosters. Males less than a year old are cockerels.[9] Castrated roosters are called capons (surgical and chemical castration are now illegal in some parts of the world). Females over a year old are known as hens, and younger females as pullets,[10] although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs, at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand (also sometimes in Britain), there is a generic term chook k/ to describe all ages and both sexes.[11] The young are often called chicks.

"Chicken" originally referred to young domestic fowl.[12] The species as a whole was then called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, and to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea (see for example Hen and Chicken Islands). The word "chicken" is sometimes erroneously construed to mean females exclusively, despite the term "hen" for females being in wide circulation, and the term “rooster” for males being that most commonly used.

In the Deep South of the United States, chickens are also referred to by the slang term yardbird.[13]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Унэ джэдхэр
Afrikaans: Hoender
Alemannisch: Haushuhn
አማርኛ: ዶሮ
Ænglisc: Henn
العربية: دجاج
armãneashti: Gâľinâ
অসমীয়া: কুকুৰা
Atikamekw: Noce pakahakwan
Avañe'ẽ: Ryguasu
авар: ГӀанкӀу
Aymar aru: Chiwchi
azərbaycanca: Toyuq
বাংলা: মুরগি
Bahasa Banjar: Hayam
Bân-lâm-gú: Ke
башҡортса: Тауыҡ
беларуская: Курыца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Курыца
भोजपुरी: देसी मुर्गा
Bikol Central: Manok
български: Домашна кокошка
བོད་ཡིག: བྱ་ཏེ་
bosanski: Kokoška
brezhoneg: Yar (evn)
буряад: Тахяа
català: Gall
čeština: Kur domácí
chiShona: Huku
chiTumbuka: Nkhuku
Cymraeg: Iâr (ddof)
dansk: Høns
Deitsch: Hinkel
Deutsch: Haushuhn
Diné bizaad: Naaʼahóóhai
eesti: Kana
Ελληνικά: Όρνιθα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Gal
эрзянь: Сараз
Esperanto: Koko
estremeñu: Gallus gallus
euskara: Oilo
eʋegbe: Koklo
فارسی: مرغ
Fiji Hindi: Murgi
furlan: Gjaline
Gaeilge: Sicín
Gàidhlig: Cearc
galego: Galiña
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kiê-é
한국어:
Hausa: Kaza
Հայերեն: Հավ
हिन्दी: मुर्गी
hrvatski: Domaća kokoš
Ido: Hano
Ilokano: Manok
Bahasa Indonesia: Ayam peliharaan
interlingua: Gallina
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊ'ᐊ'ᐋᒃ
isiXhosa: Inkuku
íslenska: Nytjahænsni
Basa Jawa: Pitik
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೋಳಿ
Kapampangan: Manuk
ქართული: ქათამი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: کۄکَر
kaszëbsczi: Kùra
қазақша: Тауық
Kinyarwanda: Inkoko
Kiswahili: Kuku
Kongo: Nsusu
kurdî: Mirîşk
Кыргызча: Тоок
кырык мары: Цӹвӹ
Ladino: Gayo
лакку: АьнакӀи
лезги: Верч
ລາວ: ໄກ່
Latina: Gallus
latviešu: Mājas vista
Lëtzebuergesch: Haushong
lietuvių: Naminė višta
Limburgs: Hoon
lingála: Nsósó
magyar: Házityúk
македонски: Кокошка
മലയാളം: കോഴി
मराठी: कोंबडी
მარგალური: ქოთომი
مصرى: فرخه
مازِرونی: کرک
Bahasa Melayu: Ayam
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Giĕ
мокшень: Сараз
Nāhuatl: Cuanacatl
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Toa
Nederlands: Kip (vogel)
Nedersaksies: Hounder
नेपाली: कुखुरा
नेपाल भाषा: खा (झंगः)
日本語: ニワトリ
нохчийн: Котам
norsk: Tamhøns
norsk nynorsk: Høns
occitan: Gallus gallus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tovuq
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੁੱਕੜ
پنجابی: ککڑ
Перем Коми: Курӧг
Picard: Glinne
Plattdüütsch: Hohn
polski: Kura domowa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Tawıqlar
română: Găină
Runa Simi: Wallpa
русиньскый: Курка
русский: Курица
sardu: Pudda
Scots: Chicken
Sesotho sa Leboa: Kgogo
sicilianu: Jaddina
Simple English: Chicken
سنڌي: ڪڪڙ
slovenčina: Kura domáca
slovenščina: Domača kokoš
Soomaaliga: Dooro
کوردی: مریشک
српски / srpski: Кокошка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Domaća kokoš
Basa Sunda: Hayam
suomi: Kana
svenska: Tamhöna
Tagalog: Manok
தமிழ்: கோழி
tarandíne: Jadde
татарча/tatarça: Йорт тавыгы
తెలుగు: కోడి
ไทย: ไก่
тоҷикӣ: Мурғ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Kokêhéaxa
ತುಳು: ಕೋರಿ
Türkçe: Tavuk
удмурт: Курег
українська: Курка
اردو: مرغی
Vahcuengh: Gaeq
vepsän kel’: Kana
Tiếng Việt:
Võro: Kana
walon: Poye
West-Vlams: Henne
Winaray: Manók
Wolof: Ganaar
吴语:
ייִדיש: האן
粵語:
žemaitėška: Vėšta
中文:
Bahasa Hulontalo: Malu'o
ГӀалгӀай: Котам