Chicago, Illinois
City of Chicago
Clockwise from top: Downtown, the Chicago Theatre, the 'L', Navy Pier, the Pritzker Pavilion, the Field Museum, and Willis Tower
Clockwise from top: Downtown, the Chicago Theatre, the 'L', Navy Pier, the Pritzker Pavilion, the Field Museum, and Willis Tower
Official seal of Chicago, Illinois
Etymology: Miami-Illinois: shikaakwa ("wild onion" or "wild garlic")
Potawatomi: Gaa-zhigaagwanzhikaag
Windy City, Chi-Town, City of Big Shoulders,[1] Second City, My Kind of Town
(for more, see full list)
Interactive map outlining Chicago
Chicago is located in Illinois
Location within Illinois
Chicago is located in the United States
Location within the United States
Chicago is located in North America
Location within North America
Coordinates: 41°53′04″N 87°37′57″W / 41°53′04″N 87°37′57″W / 41.88444; -87.63250

Chicago (/ (About this soundlisten), locally also /), officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States, and portions of the city extend westward into neighboring DuPage County. It is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third-largest in the United States.

Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew rapidly in the mid-19th century.[7] After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild.[8] The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, and by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.[9] Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles (including the Chicago School of architecture), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper.[10][11]

Chicago is an international hub for finance, culture, commerce, industry, technology, telecommunications, and transportation. It is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market globally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures.[12] O'Hare International Airport is one of the busiest airports in the world, and the region also has the largest number of U.S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight.[13] In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network,[14] and it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index.[15] The Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products (GDP) in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017.[16] In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.[17]

Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018 made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors.[18][19] The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities.[20][21][22][23][24] The city is also home to several fortune 500 companies, the most notable being, Allstate, Boeing, Exelon, McDonald's, Quaker Oats, and United Airlines Holdings. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis (Sears) Tower, Grant Park (Chicago), the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, literature, film, theater, comedy (especially improvisational comedy), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, soul, hip-hop, gospel,[25] and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams.

Etymology and nicknames

The name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more commonly as ramps. The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir.[26] Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area.[27] According to his diary of late September 1687:

...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region.[27]

The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises.[28]

Other Languages
Acèh: Chicago
Afrikaans: Chicago
Akan: Chicago
Alemannisch: Chicago
አማርኛ: ሺካጎ
Ænglisc: Chicago
العربية: شيكاغو
aragonés: Chicago
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܫܝܩܓܘ
armãneashti: Chicago
arpetan: Chicagô
asturianu: Chicago
Avañe'ẽ: Chikago
azərbaycanca: Çikaqo
تۆرکجه: شیکاقو
bamanankan: Chicago
বাংলা: শিকাগো
Bân-lâm-gú: Chicago
беларуская: Чыкага
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чыкага
भोजपुरी: शिकागो
Bikol Central: Chicago
Bislama: Chicago
български: Чикаго
Boarisch: Chicago
bosanski: Chicago
brezhoneg: Chicago
буряад: Чикаго
català: Chicago
Cebuano: Chicago
čeština: Chicago
chiShona: Chicago
corsu: Chicago
Cymraeg: Chicago
dansk: Chicago
davvisámegiella: Chicago
Deitsch: Chicago
Deutsch: Chicago
Diné bizaad: Shikááʼgóó
dolnoserbski: Chicago
डोटेली: शिकागो
eesti: Chicago
Ελληνικά: Σικάγο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Chicago
эрзянь: Чикаго
español: Chicago
Esperanto: Ĉikago
estremeñu: Chicago
euskara: Chicago
فارسی: شیکاگو
Fiji Hindi: Chicago
føroyskt: Chicago
français: Chicago
Frysk: Chicago
furlan: Chicago
Gaelg: Chicago
Gàidhlig: Chicago
galego: Chicago
贛語: 芝加哥
Gĩkũyũ: Chicago
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌾𐌹𐌺𐌰𐌲𐍉
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chicago
한국어: 시카고
Hausa: Chicago
հայերեն: Չիկագո
Արեւմտահայերէն: Շիքակօ
हिन्दी: शिकागो
hornjoserbsce: Chicago
hrvatski: Chicago
Ido: Chicago
Igbo: Chicago
Ilokano: Chicago
Bahasa Indonesia: Chicago
interlingua: Chicago
Interlingue: Chicago
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓰᖄᑯ
Ирон: Чикаго
isiXhosa: E-Chicago
isiZulu: Chicago
íslenska: Chicago
italiano: Chicago
עברית: שיקגו
kalaallisut: Chicago
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಶಿಕಾಗೊ
Kapampangan: Chicago
къарачай-малкъар: Чикаго
ქართული: ჩიკაგო
қазақша: Чикаго
Kirundi: Chicago
Kiswahili: Chicago
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chikago
kurdî: Chicago
Кыргызча: Чикаго
кырык мары: Чикаго
Ladino: Chicago
Latina: Sicagum
latviešu: Čikāga
Lëtzebuergesch: Chicago
lietuvių: Čikaga
Ligure: Chicago
Limburgs: Chicago
Lingua Franca Nova: Chicago
lumbaart: Chicago
magyar: Chicago
македонски: Чикаго
Malagasy: Chicago
മലയാളം: ഷിക്കാഗോ
Māori: Chicago
मराठी: शिकागो
მარგალური: ჩიკაგო
مصرى: شيكاجو
مازِرونی: شیکاگو
Bahasa Melayu: Chicago
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chicago
Mirandés: Chicago
монгол: Чикаго
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရှီကာဂိုမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Chicago
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Chicago
Nederlands: Chicago
नेपाली: शिकागो
नेपाल भाषा: शिकागो
日本語: シカゴ
нохчийн: Чикаго
Nordfriisk: Chicago
norsk: Chicago
norsk nynorsk: Chicago
Novial: Chicago
occitan: Chicago
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chicago
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਿਕਾਗੋ
پنجابی: شکاگو
Papiamentu: Chicago
پښتو: شیکاګو
Picard: Chicago
Piemontèis: Chicago
Tok Pisin: Chicago
Plattdüütsch: Chicago
polski: Chicago
português: Chicago
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shikago
română: Chicago
romani čhib: Chicago
rumantsch: Chicago
Runa Simi: Chicago
русиньскый: Чикаго
русский: Чикаго
саха тыла: Чикаго
Sängö: Chicago
sardu: Chicago
Scots: Chicago
Seeltersk: Chicago
Sesotho: Chicago
shqip: Çikago
sicilianu: Chicagu
Simple English: Chicago
slovenčina: Chicago
slovenščina: Chicago
ślůnski: Chicago
Soomaaliga: Chicago
کوردی: شیکاگۆ
Sranantongo: Chicago
српски / srpski: Чикаго
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Chicago
suomi: Chicago
svenska: Chicago
Tagalog: Chicago
தமிழ்: சிகாகோ
Taqbaylit: Chicago
tarandíne: Chicago
татарча/tatarça: Çikago
తెలుగు: చికాగో
tetun: Chicago
тоҷикӣ: Чикаго
Tsetsêhestâhese: Chicago
Türkçe: Chicago
Türkmençe: Chicago
Twi: Kyekago
українська: Чикаго
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Chikago
vèneto: Chicago
vepsän kel’: Čikago
Tiếng Việt: Chicago
Volapük: Chicago
walon: Tchicago
Winaray: Chicago
吴语: 芝加哥
ייִדיש: שיקאגא
Yorùbá: Ṣìkágò
粵語: 芝加哥
Zazaki: Chicago
žemaitėška: Čėkaga
中文: 芝加哥