Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.[1][2] In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology.[3] It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level.[4] For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (astrophysics), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).

Etymology

The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine. It is often seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold,[5] though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos.[6] An alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry".

The modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā (الكیمیاء). In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία.[7][8] This may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, which is in turn derived from the word Kemet, which is the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language.[7] Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together".[9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Chemie
Alemannisch: Chemie
العربية: كيمياء
aragonés: Quimica
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܝܡܝܐ
armãneashti: Chimie
arpetan: Ch·imie
asturianu: Química
Avañe'ẽ: Kimikuaa
azərbaycanca: Kimya
تۆرکجه: شیمی
বাংলা: রসায়ন
Bahasa Banjar: Kimia
Bân-lâm-gú: Hòa-ha̍k
Basa Banyumasan: Kimia
башҡортса: Химия
беларуская: Хімія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Хімія
Bislama: Kemistri
български: Химия
Boarisch: Kemii
bosanski: Hemija
brezhoneg: Kimiezh
буряад: Хими
català: Química
Чӑвашла: Хими
Cebuano: Kimika
čeština: Chemie
chiShona: Chemishonga
corsu: Chimica
Cymraeg: Cemeg
dansk: Kemi
Deutsch: Chemie
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކީމިއާއީ އިލްމު
eesti: Keemia
Ελληνικά: Χημεία
español: Química
Esperanto: Kemio
estremeñu: Química
euskara: Kimika
فارسی: شیمی
Fiji Hindi: Rasayan vigyan
føroyskt: Evnafrøði
français: Chimie
Frysk: Skiekunde
furlan: Chimiche
Gaeilge: Ceimic
Gaelg: Kemmig
Gàidhlig: Ceimigeachd
galego: Química
贛語: 化學
Gĩkũyũ: Kemu
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fa-ho̍k
한국어: 화학
Hausa: Kimiya
Hawaiʻi: Kemika
հայերեն: Քիմիա
hrvatski: Kemija
Ido: Kemio
Ilokano: Kímika
Bahasa Indonesia: Kimia
interlingua: Chimia
Interlingue: Chimie
Ирон: Хими
isiXhosa: IKhemistri
íslenska: Efnafræði
italiano: Chimica
עברית: כימיה
Basa Jawa: Kimia
Kabɩyɛ: Siimii lɛɣtʋ
ქართული: ქიმია
kaszëbsczi: Chemijô
қазақша: Химия
kernowek: Kymystry
Kiswahili: Kemia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chimi
kurdî: Kîmya
Кыргызча: Химия
Ladino: Kemika
لۊری شومالی: کیمیا دۊنسمنی
Latina: Chemia
latviešu: Ķīmija
Lëtzebuergesch: Chimie
лезги: Химия
lietuvių: Chemija
Ligure: Chimica
Limburgs: Chemie
lingála: Kémi
Lingua Franca Nova: Cimica
la .lojban.: xumske
Luganda: Ebyobuziba
lumbaart: Chímica
magyar: Kémia
македонски: Хемија
Malagasy: Simia
മലയാളം: രസതന്ത്രം
Malti: Kimika
მარგალური: ქიმია
مصرى: كيميا
مازِرونی: شیمی
Bahasa Melayu: Kimia
Baso Minangkabau: Kimia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Huá-hŏk
Mirandés: Química
мокшень: Кимиесь
монгол: Хими
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဓာတုဗေဒ
Nederlands: Scheikunde
Nedersaksies: Scheikunde
नेपाल भाषा: रसायनशास्त्र
日本語: 化学
Nordfriisk: Chemii
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kemistrii
norsk: Kjemi
norsk nynorsk: Kjemi
Nouormand: Chimie
Novial: Kemie
occitan: Quimia
олык марий: Химий
Oromoo: Kemistirii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kimyo
پنجابی: کیمسٹری
پښتو: کيميا
Patois: Kimischri
ភាសាខ្មែរ: គីមីវិទ្យា
Picard: Kémie
Tok Pisin: Kemistri
Plattdüütsch: Chemie
polski: Chemia
português: Química
Qaraqalpaqsha: Ximiya
română: Chimie
Runa Simi: Chaqllisinchi
русиньскый: Хемія
русский: Химия
саха тыла: Химия
Gagana Samoa: Kemisi
संस्कृतम्: रसतन्त्रम्
sardu: Chìmica
Scots: Chemistrie
Seeltersk: Chemie
Sesotho sa Leboa: Khemistri
shqip: Kimia
sicilianu: Chìmica
Simple English: Chemistry
SiSwati: Ikhemisi
slovenčina: Chémia
slovenščina: Kemija
ślůnski: Chymijo
Soomaaliga: Kimisteri
کوردی: کیمیا
српски / srpski: Хемија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hemija
Basa Sunda: Kimia
suomi: Kemia
svenska: Kemi
Tagalog: Kimika
Taqbaylit: Takrura
татарча/tatarça: Химия
tetun: Kímika
ไทย: เคมี
тоҷикӣ: Кимиё
Türkçe: Kimya
Türkmençe: Himiýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Piöcëkätiɔɔp
удмурт: Химия
українська: Хімія
اردو: کیمیا
Vahcuengh: Vayoz
vèneto: Chìmega
vepsän kel’: Himii
Tiếng Việt: Hóa học
Volapük: Kiemav
Võro: Keemiä
walon: Tchimeye
文言: 化學
Winaray: Kímika
吴语: 化學
Xitsonga: Ntivo-Mirhi
ייִדיש: כעמיע
Yorùbá: Kẹ́místrì
粵語: 化學
Zazaki: Kimya
Zeêuws: Scheikunde
žemaitėška: Kemėjė
中文: 化學