Che Guevara

Che Guevara
CheHigh.jpg
Guerrillero Heroico
Picture taken by Alberto Korda on March 5, 1960, at the La Coubre memorial service
Born
Ernesto Guevara

(1928-06-14)June 14, 1928[1]
DiedOctober 9, 1967(1967-10-09) (aged 39)
Cause of deathExecution by shooting
Resting placeChe Guevara Mausoleum
Santa Clara, Cuba
Alma materUniversity of Buenos Aires
OccupationPhysician, author, guerrilla, government official
Organization26th of July Movement, United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution,[2] National Liberation Army (Bolivia)
Known forGuevarism
Spouse(s)Hilda Gadea (1955–1959)
Aleida March (1959–1967, his death)
ChildrenHilda (1956–1995)
Aleida (born 1960)
Camilo (born 1962)
Celia (born 1963)
Ernesto (born 1965)
Parent(s)Ernesto Guevara Lynch
Celia de la Serna y Llosa
Signature
CheGuevaraSignature.svg

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (ə/;[3] Spanish: [ˈtʃe ɣeˈβaɾa][4] June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)[5] was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture.[6]

As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout South America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger and disease he witnessed.[7] His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Árbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara's political ideology.[7] Later in Mexico City, Guevara met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista.[8] Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second in command and played a pivotal role in the victorious two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime.[9]

Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals,[10] instituting agrarian land reform as minister of industries, helping spearhead a successful nationwide literacy campaign, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba's armed forces, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such positions also allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion,[11] and bringing Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to Cuba, which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.[12] Additionally, Guevara was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful continental motorcycle journey. His experiences and studying of Marxism–Leninism led him to posit that the Third World's underdevelopment and dependence was an intrinsic result of imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism, with the only remedy being proletarian internationalism and world revolution.[13][14] Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to foment revolution abroad, first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and summarily executed.[15]

Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure, polarized in the collective imagination in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, essays, documentaries, songs and films. As a result of his perceived martyrdom, poetic invocations for class struggle and desire to create the consciousness of a "new man" driven by moral rather than material incentives,[16] Guevara has evolved into a quintessential icon of various leftist movements. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century,[17] while an Alberto Korda photograph of him, titled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was cited by the Maryland Institute College of Art as "the most famous photograph in the world".[18]

Early life

A teenage Ernesto (left) with his parents and siblings, c. 1944, seated beside him from left to right: Celia (mother), Celia (sister), Roberto, Juan Martín, Ernesto (father) and Ana María

Ernesto Guevara was born to Ernesto Guevara Lynch and Celia de la Serna y Llosa, on June 14, 1928,[5] in Rosario, Argentina, according to his birth certificate, but, according to biographer Jon Lee Anderson's book Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, Che's mother confided to an astrologer friend that he was actually born on May 14, 1928. The deception was made to avoid the scandal of having been already three months pregnant before marriage.[19]

He is the eldest of five children in a middle-class Argentine family of Spanish (including Basque and Cantabrian) descent, as well as Irish by means of his patrilineal ancestor Patrick Lynch.[20][21][22] In accordance with the flexibility allowed in Spanish naming customs, his legal name (Ernesto Guevara) will sometimes appear with "de la Serna" and/or "Lynch" accompanying it.[23] Referring to Che's "restless" nature, his father declared "the first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels".[24]

Very early on in life, Ernestito (as he was then called) developed an "affinity for the poor".[25] Growing up in a family with leftist leanings, Guevara was introduced to a wide spectrum of political perspectives even as a boy.[26] His father, a staunch supporter of Republicans from the Spanish Civil War, often hosted many veterans from the conflict in the Guevara home.[27]

Despite suffering crippling bouts of acute asthma that were to afflict him throughout his life, he excelled as an athlete, enjoying swimming, football, golf, and shooting, while also becoming an "untiring" cyclist.[28][29] He was an avid rugby union player,[30] and played at fly-half for Club Universitario de Buenos Aires.[31] His rugby playing earned him the nickname "Fuser"—a contraction of El Furibundo (raging) and his mother's surname, de la Serna—for his aggressive style of play.[32]

Intellectual and literary interests

22-year-old Guevara in 1951

Guevara learned chess from his father, and began participating in local tournaments by the age of 12. During adolescence and throughout his life he was passionate about poetry, especially that of Pablo Neruda, John Keats, Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Gabriela Mistral, César Vallejo, and Walt Whitman.[33] He could also recite Rudyard Kipling's "If—" and José Hernández's Martín Fierro by heart.[33] The Guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, which allowed Guevara to be an enthusiastic and eclectic reader, with interests including Karl Marx, William Faulkner, André Gide, Emilio Salgari and Jules Verne.[34] Additionally, he enjoyed the works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Vladimir Lenin and Jean-Paul Sartre; as well as Anatole France, Friedrich Engels, H. G. Wells and Robert Frost.[35]

As he grew older, he developed an interest in the Latin American writers Horacio Quiroga, Ciro Alegría, Jorge Icaza, Rubén Darío and Miguel Asturias.[35] Many of these authors' ideas he cataloged in his own handwritten notebooks of concepts, definitions, and philosophies of influential intellectuals. These included composing analytical sketches of Buddha and Aristotle, along with examining Bertrand Russell on love and patriotism, Jack London on society and Nietzsche on the idea of death. Sigmund Freud's ideas fascinated him as he quoted him on a variety of topics from dreams and libido to narcissism and the Oedipus complex.[35] His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, sociology, history and archaeology.[36][37]

Years later, a declassified CIA 'biographical and personality report' dated February 13, 1958 made note of Guevara's wide range of academic interests and intellect, describing him as "quite well read" while adding that "Che is fairly intellectual for a Latino."[38]

Motorcycle journey

black and white photograph of two men on a raft, fitted with a large hut. The far bank of the river is visible in the far distance
Guevara (right) with Alberto Granado (left) in June 1952 on the Amazon River aboard their "Mambo-Tango" wooden raft, which was a gift from the lepers whom they had treated[39]

In 1948, Guevara entered the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine. His "hunger to explore the world"[40] led him to intersperse his collegiate pursuits with two long introspective journeys that fundamentally changed the way he viewed himself and the contemporary economic conditions in Latin America. The first expedition in 1950 was a 4,500-kilometer (2,800 mi) solo trip through the rural provinces of northern Argentina on a bicycle on which he installed a small engine.[41] This was followed in 1951 by a nine-month, 8,000-kilometer (5,000 mi) continental motorcycle trek through part of South America. For the latter, he took a year off from his studies to embark with his friend Alberto Granado, with the final goal of spending a few weeks volunteering at the San Pablo leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon River.[42]

A map of Guevara's 1952 trip with Alberto Granado (the red arrows correspond to air travel)

In Chile, Guevara found himself enraged by the working conditions of the miners in Anaconda's Chuquicamata copper mine and moved by his overnight encounter in the Atacama Desert with a persecuted communist couple who did not even own a blanket, describing them as "the shivering flesh-and-blood victims of capitalist exploitation".[43] Additionally, on the way to Machu Picchu high in the Andes, he was struck by the crushing poverty of the remote rural areas, where peasant farmers worked small plots of land owned by wealthy landlords.[44] Later on his journey, Guevara was especially impressed by the camaraderie among those living in a leper colony, stating, "The highest forms of human solidarity and loyalty arise among such lonely and desperate people."[44] Guevara used notes taken during this trip to write an account, titled The Motorcycle Diaries, which later became a New York Times best-seller,[45] and was adapted into a 2004 award-winning film of the same name.

A motorcycle journey the length of South America awakened him to the injustice of US domination in the hemisphere, and to the suffering colonialism brought to its original inhabitants.

George Galloway, British politician[46]

The journey took Guevara through Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and Miami, Florida, for 20 days,[47] before returning home to Buenos Aires. By the end of the trip, he came to view Latin America not as collection of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide liberation strategy. His conception of a borderless, united Hispanic America sharing a common Latino heritage was a theme that recurred prominently during his later revolutionary activities. Upon returning to Argentina, he completed his studies and received his medical degree in June 1953, making him officially "Dr. Ernesto Guevara".[48][49]

Guevara later remarked that through his travels in Latin America, he came in "close contact with poverty, hunger and disease" along with the "inability to treat a child because of lack of money" and "stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment" that leads a father to "accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident". Guevara cited these experiences as convincing him that in order to "help these people", he needed to leave the realm of medicine and consider the political arena of armed struggle.[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Che Guevara
Alemannisch: Che Guevara
አማርኛ: ቼ ጌቫራ
العربية: تشي جيفارا
aragonés: Ernesto Guevara
Avañe'ẽ: Che Guevara
Aymar aru: Che Guevara
azərbaycanca: Ernesto Çe Gevara
বাংলা: চে গেভারা
Bân-lâm-gú: Che Guevara
башҡортса: Че Гевара
беларуская: Эрнэста Гевара
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чэ Гевара
български: Че Гевара
bosanski: Che Guevara
brezhoneg: Che Guevara
буряад: Че Гевара
català: Che Guevara
čeština: Che Guevara
Cymraeg: Che Guevara
Deutsch: Che Guevara
dolnoserbski: Ernesto Che Guevara
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ernesto Che Guevara
español: Che Guevara
Esperanto: Che Guevara
euskara: Che Guevara
فارسی: چه گوارا
Fiji Hindi: Che Guevara
føroyskt: Che Guevara
français: Che Guevara
Gaeilge: Che Guevara
Gàidhlig: Che Guevara
galego: Che Guevara
ગુજરાતી: ચે ગૂવેરા
한국어: 체 게바라
հայերեն: Չե Գևարա
हिन्दी: चे ग्वेरा
hornjoserbsce: Ernesto Che Guevara
hrvatski: Che Guevara
Ilokano: Che Guevara
Bahasa Indonesia: Che Guevara
interlingua: Che Guevara
íslenska: Che Guevara
italiano: Che Guevara
עברית: צ'ה גווארה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚೇ ಗುವಾರ
қазақша: Че Гевара
Kiswahili: Che Guevara
kurdî: Che Guevara
Кыргызча: Че Гевара
latviešu: Če Gevara
Lëtzebuergesch: Che Guevara
lietuvių: Che Guevara
Limburgs: Che Guevara
la .lojban.: tces.gevaras
lumbaart: Che Guevara
magyar: Che Guevara
македонски: Че Гевара
Malagasy: Che Guevara
മലയാളം: ചെ ഗെവാറ
مصرى: جيفارا
مازِرونی: چه گوارا
Bahasa Melayu: Che Guevara
Baso Minangkabau: Che Guevara
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Che Guevara
Mirandés: Che Guevara
монгол: Че Гевара
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ချေဂွေဗားရား
Nāhuatl: Ernesto Guevara
Nederlands: Che Guevara
नेपाल भाषा: चे ग्वेभारा
norsk nynorsk: Che Guevara
occitan: Che Guevara
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ernesto Che Guevara
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚੀ ਗਵੇਰਾ
پنجابی: چی گویرا
پښتو: چې گوارا
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឈី ហ្គីវ៉ារ៉ា
Piemontèis: Ernesto Che Guevara
polski: Che Guevara
português: Che Guevara
română: Che Guevara
rumantsch: Che Guevara
Runa Simi: Ernesto Guevara
русиньскый: Че Ґевара
саха тыла: Че Гевара
संस्कृतम्: चे ग्वेएरा
sicilianu: Che Guevara
සිංහල: චේ ගුවේරා
Simple English: Che Guevara
slovenčina: Che Guevara
slovenščina: Che Guevara
ślůnski: Ernesto Guevara
Soomaaliga: Che Guvara
کوردی: چێ گیڤارا
српски / srpski: Че Гевара
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Che Guevara
Basa Sunda: Che Guevara
svenska: Che Guevara
Tagalog: Che Guevara
தமிழ்: சே குவேரா
татарча/tatarça: Эрнесто Че Гевара
తెలుగు: చే గెవారా
тоҷикӣ: Че Гевара
Türkçe: Che Guevara
українська: Ернесто Че Гевара
اردو: چی گویرا
vèneto: Che Guevara
Tiếng Việt: Che Guevara
Volapük: Che Guevara
Winaray: Che Guevara
ייִדיש: טשע געווארא
Yorùbá: Che Guevara
粵語: 哲古華拉
Zeêuws: Che Guevara
žemaitėška: Čė Gėvara