Chané

Chané (Izoceño)
El Fuerte Vista del lado.jpg
El Fuerte de Samaipata, Chané ruins that predate the Inca, Samaipata, Bolivia
Total population
1,500
Regions with significant populations
 Argentina 3,034 (2010) [1]
 Bolivia
 Paraguay
Languages
Chiriguano, Spanish, formerly Chané language (an Arawakan language)[2]
Religion
Animism, Christianity
(Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism)

Chané is the collective name for the southernmost Arawak-speaking peoples. They lived in the plains of the northern Gran Chaco and in the foothills of the Andes in Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina. The historical Chané are divided into two principal groups. The Chané proper who lived in eastern Bolivia and the Guaná who lived in Paraguay and adjacent Brazil. Twenty-first century survivors of the Chané are the Izoceno people of Bolivia and 3,034 descendants reported in Argentina by the 2010 census. Survivors of the Guaná are the Tereno and the Kinikinao both of Mato Grosso do Sul province in Brazil.[3]

Most of the historical Chané were subjects of and absorbed by the Eastern Bolivian Guarani, commonly called Chiriguanos, while the Guaná were subjects of the Mbayá, a Guaycuruan speaking people.

History

The Chané, together with other Arawak groups, are believed to have originated in northeastern South America, but to have spread southward about 2,500 years ago. They developed an agrarian culture, built densely populated villages, cultivated corn, peanuts, cotton and squash, and are famous for their ceramics and graphics which have been found mainly in the pampas of Bolivia surrounding the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and in Samaipata, Portachuelo, Valle Abajo, Okinawa, Cotoca, El Pari, Mataral and Warnes.[4] They also craft wooden masks and fabric clothing.

An ancient Chané religious site dating from about 300 CE is El Fuerte de Samaipata, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[5]

They were a rather peaceful culture and traded with the Quechua-speaking Incas in the Andes and with other Arawak-speaking groups to the north and east. Chanés and Incas established a truce to join forces against the Eastern Guarani peoples of the Andes foothills, who the Incas and Spaniards called Chiriguanos. The Chiriguanos raided the Chané homeland on a regular basis, and prior to the Spanish conquest, the Chiriguanos defeated the Chanés and halted the Inca advance into the plains and valleys of what is now the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia. Some Chane weré forced into slavery by the Chiriguanos, others migrated to less fertile regions to the southeast. Many Chané women were taken as wives by Chiriguano men, thus starting a process of assimilation. Both Guaraní and Guaraní-speaking Chané also assimilated and mixed with Europeans during the colonial period and after the independence of both Argentina and Bolivia.

Other Languages
català: Chané
español: Chanés
français: Chané
hrvatski: Chané
ქართული: ჩანეს ხალხი
lietuvių: Čaniai
português: Guanás
русский: Чане
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Chané
українська: Чане