Chagatai Khanate

Chagatai Khanate

Цагаадайн Хаант Улс
Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus
  • 1225 – 1340s (Whole)
  • 1340s–1370 (Western)
  • 1340s–1680s (Eastern)
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
Status
CapitalAlmaliq, Qarshi
Common languagesMongolian,[1] Chagatai language[2][3]
Religion
GovernmentSemi-elective monarchy, later hereditary monarchy
Khan 
• 1225–1242
Chagatai Khan
LegislatureKurultai
Historical eraLate Middle Ages
• Chagatai Khan inherited part of Mongol Empire
1225
• Death of Chagatai
1242
• Chagatai Khanate split into Western Chagatai Khanate and Moghulistan
1340s
• End of the western empire
1370
• End of the eastern empire
1680s
Area
1310 or 1350 est.[4][5]3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
CurrencyCoins (dirhams, Kebek, and pūl)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Western Chagatai Khanate
Moghulistan
Timurid Empire
Afaq Khoja
Dzungar Khanate

The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Цагаадайн Хаант Улс Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate[6][7] that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,[8] second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304,[9] but became split into two parts in the mid-14th century: the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Moghulistan Khanate.

At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China.[10]

The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, although the western half of the khanate was lost to Timur's empire by 1370. The eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timur's successors, the Timurid dynasty. Finally, in the 17th century, the remaining Chagatai domains fell under the theocratic regime of Afaq Khoja and his descendants, the Khojas, who ruled Xinjiang under Dzungar and Manchu overlordships consecutively.

Formation

Genghis Khan's empire was inherited by his third son, Ögedei Khan, the designated Khagan who personally controlled the lands east of Lake Balkhash as far as Mongolia. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland. Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers (in modern Uzbekistan) and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China.[11] Apart from problems of lineage and inheritance, the Mongol Empire was endangered by the great cultural and ethnic divide between the Mongols themselves and their mostly Islamic Iranian and Turkic subjects.

When Ögedei died before achieving his dream of conquering all of China, there was an unsettled transition to his son Güyük Khan (1241) overseen by Ögedei's wife Töregene Khatun, who had assumed the regency for the five years following Ögedei's death. The transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde.[12] After Güyük's death, Batu sent Berke, who maneuvered with Tolui's widow, and, in the next kurultai (1253), the Ögedite line was passed over for Möngke Khan, Tolui's son, who was said to be favorable to the Church of the East.[13] The Ögedite ulus was dismembered; only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs.[nb 1]

In the book The Travels of Ibn Battuta we see Ibn Battuta had made his way to the camp of Tarmashirin who was the current Mongol Sultan and descendent of Jengiz Khan. When he arrived the king had called over Ibn Battuta to his tent and they had both treated each other respectfully and Kindly. The king had asked about his journeys through major cities such as Mecca and Jerusalem and Ibn Battuta had answered back. During the hour of prayer the Sultan had called for the priest to wait for him before starting prayer, yet the priest didn't wait for the prayers were for god not the Sultan and the Sultan had arrived late. The Sultan began to interact with his people and Ibn Battuta saw that he was loved and respected by his people. The Sultan had given Ibn some money and sent him off on his journey once more. Yet the Sultan had broken some of the rules to stay as Sultan and was later overthrown and killed by one of his cousins.[15]

Chagatai modern day is located in parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

Other Languages
العربية: جاغاطاي
aragonés: Khanato Chagatai
azərbaycanca: Cığatay xanlığı
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekhanan Chagatai
Кыргызча: Чагатай улусу
македонски: Чагатајски Ханат
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chigʻatoy ulusi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਖਨਾਨ ਚਗਤਾਈ
português: Canato de Chagatai
Simple English: Chagatai Khanate
slovenščina: Čagatajski kanat
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čagatajski kanat
татарча/tatarça: Çağatay olısı
українська: Чагатайський улус