Centriole

Cell biology
The centrosome
Centrosome (numbers version).svg
Components of a typical centrosome:
  1. Centriole
  2. Mother centriole
  3. Daughter centriole
  4. Distal ends
  5. Distal appendages
  6. Subdistal appendages
  7. Proximal ends
  8. Microtubule triplets
  9. Interconnecting fibers
  10. Microtubules
  11. Pericentriolar material

In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle[1] composed mainly of a protein called tubulin. Centrioles are found in most eukaryotic cells. A bound pair of centrioles, surrounded by a shapeless mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material (PCM), makes up a structure called a centrosome.[1]

Centrioles are present in the cells of most eukaryotes, for example those of animals. However, they are absent from conifers (pinophyta), flowering plants (angiosperms) and most fungi, and are only present in the male gametes of charophytes, bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, cycads, and ginkgo.[2][3]

Centrioles are typically made up of nine sets of short microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylinder.Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets.[4][5]

Cross-section of a centriole showing its microtubule triplets

The main function of centrioles is to produce cilia during interphase and the aster and the spindle during cell division.

History

Edouard van Beneden made the first observation of centrioles in 1883.[6] In 1895, Theodor Boveri named the organelle a "centriole".[7][8] The pattern of centriole duplication was first worked out independently by Etienne de Harven and Joseph G. Gall c. 1950.[9][10]

Other Languages
العربية: مريكز
azərbaycanca: Sentriol
български: Центриола
bosanski: Centriola
català: Centríol
čeština: Centriola
dansk: Centriole
Deutsch: Zentriol
eesti: Tsentriool
español: Centriolo
Esperanto: Centriolo
euskara: Zentriolo
français: Centriole
Gaelg: Kentreen
galego: Centríolo
한국어: 중심소체
hrvatski: Centrioli
Bahasa Indonesia: Sentriol
íslenska: Deilikorn
italiano: Centriolo
עברית: צנטריול
ქართული: ცენტრიოლები
қазақша: Центриоль
Kreyòl ayisyen: Santriyòl
kurdî: Sentrîol
Latina: Centriolum
latviešu: Centriola
lietuvių: Centriolė
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentriol
македонски: Центриола
Nederlands: Centriool
日本語: 中心小体
occitan: Centriòl
پنجابی: سینٹریول
Plattdüütsch: Zentriol
polski: Centriola
română: Centriol
русский: Центриоль
Scots: Centriole
Simple English: Centriole
slovenčina: Centriola
کوردی: سێنتریۆل
српски / srpski: Центриола
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Centriola
svenska: Centriol
Tagalog: Sentriyol
Türkçe: Sentriyol
українська: Центріоль
Tiếng Việt: Trung tử
中文: 中心粒