Central Powers

Central Powers

Mittelmächte  (German)
Központi hatalmak  (Hungarian)
İttifak Devletleri  (Turkish)
Централни сили (Bulgarian)
1914–1918
Central Powers on 1 August 1914:   Countries of the Central Powers   Colonies, protectorates, and territories of the Central Powers   Condominiums between the German Realm and Kingdom of Belgium
Central Powers on 1 August 1914:
  Countries of the Central Powers
  Colonies, protectorates, and territories of the Central Powers
  Condominiums between the German Realm and Kingdom of Belgium
Central Powers on 11 November 1918:   Countries, condominiums, and non-state actors of the Central Powers   Colonies, occupations, protectorates, and territories of the Central Powers Quadruple Alliance: *  Germany *  Austria-Hungary *  Ottoman Empire *  Bulgaria Co-belligerent states: * Dervish State *  Transvaal * Sultanate of Darfur Client states: * Azerbaijan * Belarus * Courland and Semigallia * Crim * Don * Finland * Jabal Shammar * Kuban * Lithuania * Northern Caucasus * Poland * Ukraine * Georgia * United Baltic Duchy
Central Powers on 11 November 1918:
  Countries, condominiums, and non-state actors of the Central Powers
  Colonies, occupations, protectorates, and territories of the Central Powers



StatusMilitary alliance
Historical eraWorld War I
• Dual Alliance
(Germany / Austria-Hungary)
7 October 1879
• Established
28 June 1914
2 August 1914
  • 6 September 1915 (secret)
  • 14 October 1915 (public)
• Dissolved
11 November 1918
Preceded by
Dual Alliance (1879)
Triple Alliance (1882)
Ottoman–German alliance
Ottoman–Bulgarian alliance
Bulgaria–Germany treaty (1915)

The Central Powers (German: Mittelmächte; Hungarian: Központi hatalmak; Turkish: İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Bulgarian: Централни сили, translit. Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria—hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance[1] (German: Vierbund)—was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I (1914–18).

It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879. Despite having joined the alliance before, Italy refused to take part in World War I on the side of the Central Powers; the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria did not join until after World War I had begun, even though the Ottoman Empire had retained close relations with both Germany and Austria-Hungary since the beginning of the 20th century.

Member states

The Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers later in 1914. In 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the alliance. The name "Central Powers" is derived from the location of these countries; all four (including the other groups that supported them except for Finland and Lithuania) were located between the Russian Empire in the east and France and the United Kingdom in the west. Finland, Azerbaijan, and Lithuania joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed.

  • Allied and Central Powers during World War I
  •      Allied Powers
  •      Allied colonies, dominions, territories or occupations
  •      Central Powers
  •      Central Powers' colonies or occupations
  •      Neutral countries
Europe in 1914.

The Central Powers were composed of the following nations:[2]

Nation Entered WWI
 Austria-Hungary 28 July 1914
 German Empire 1 August 1914
 Ottoman Empire 2 August 1914 (secret)
29 October 1914 (public)
 Kingdom of Bulgaria 14 October 1915
Deaths of the Central powers
Economic statistics of the Central Powers [notes 1][3]
Population
(millions)
Land
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
GDP per capita
($)
 German Empire (1914) Mainland 67.0 0.5 244.3 3,648
Colonies 10.7 3.0 6.4 601
Total 77.7 3.5 250.7 3,227
 Austria–Hungary (1914) 50.6 0.6 100.5 1,986
 Ottoman Empire (1914) 23.0 1.8 25.3 1,100
 Kingdom of Bulgaria (1915) 4.8 0.1 7.4 1,527
Total 156.1 6.0 383.9 2,459
Military statistics of the Central Powers [4]
Mobilized Killed in action Wounded Missing in action Total casualties Percentage casualties of total force mobilized
 German Empire 13,250,000 1,808,546 (13.65%) 4,247,143 1,152,800 7,208,489 66%
 Austria–Hungary 7,800,000 922,500 (11.82%) 3,620,000 2,200,000 6,742,500 86%
 Ottoman Empire 2,998,321 325,000 (10.84%) 400,000 250,000 975,000 34%
 Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000 75,844 (6.32%) 153,390 27,029 255,263 21%
Total 25,257,321 3,131,890 8,419,533 3,629,829 15,181,252 66%
Other Languages
العربية: دول المركز
azərbaycanca: İttifaq dövlətləri
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цэнтральныя дзяржавы
български: Централни сили
bosanski: Centralne sile
Deutsch: Mittelmächte
eesti: Keskriigid
Esperanto: Centraj Potencoj
føroyskt: Miðveldi
français: Empires centraux
hrvatski: Centralne sile
Bahasa Indonesia: Blok Sentral
íslenska: Miðveldin
italiano: Imperi centrali
lumbaart: Imperi centrai
македонски: Централни сили
Bahasa Melayu: Kuasa Tengah
日本語: 中央同盟国
norsk nynorsk: Sentralmaktene
ភាសាខ្មែរ: មហាអំណាច កណ្ដាល
português: Impérios Centrais
Simple English: Central Powers
slovenčina: Ústredné veľmoci
slovenščina: Centralne sile
српски / srpski: Централне силе
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Centralne sile
Tiếng Việt: Liên minh Trung tâm
Võro: Keskriigiq