Caucasian War

The Caucasian War
Part of Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Roubaud. Scene from Caucasian war.jpg
Franz Roubaud's A Scene from the Caucasian War
ResultSurrender of Imam Shamil
Russian annexation of the Northeast Caucasus
Ethnic cleansing of Circassians
Caucasus annexed into Russia.
 Russian Empire
Odishi flag.svg Principality of Mingrelia
Banner of Guria.svg Principality of Guria

Thirdimamateflag.svg Caucasian Imamate

Flag of Adygea.svg Circassia

  • Kabarda3.gif Big Kabarda (to 1825)

Coat of Arms of the Principality of Abkhazia.svg Abkhazian insurgents

Geo svan.JPG Principality of Svaneti
Commanders and leaders
Emperor Nicholas I
Emperor Alexander I
Emperor Alexander II
Aleksey Yermolov
Mikhail Vorontsov
Aleksandr Baryatinskiy
Ivan Paskevich
Nikolai Yevdokimov
Mansur Ushurma
Beibulat Taimin
Shamil Gimry
Ghazi Mullah
Kazbech Tuguzhoko
Akhmat Aublaa
Shabat Marshan
Haji Kerantukh Berzek
about 250,000unknown
Casualties and losses
roughly 96,000unknown

The Caucasian War (Russian: Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians. It consisted of a series of military actions waged by the Empire against the peoples of the Caucasus including the Adyghe, AbkhazAbaza, Ubykhs, Kumyks and Nakh and Dagestanians as Russia sought to expand.[1] In Dagestan, resistance to the Russians was described as jihad.[2]

Russian control of the Georgian Military Highway in the center divided the Caucasian War into the Russo-Circassian War in the west and the Murid War in the east. Other territories of the Caucasus (comprising contemporary eastern Georgia, southern Dagestan, Armenia and Azerbaijan) were incorporated into the Russian empire at various times in the 19th century as a result of Russian wars with Persia.[3] The remaining part, western Georgia, was taken by the Russians from the Ottomans during the same period.


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