Catania

Catania
Comune di Catania
Catania skyline
Catania skyline
Flag of Catania
Flag
Location of Catania
Catania is located in Italy
Catania
Catania
Location of Catania in Sicily
Catania is located in Sicily
Catania
Catania
Catania (Sicily)
Coordinates: 37°30′0″N 15°5′25″E / 37°30′0″N 15°5′25″E / 37.50000; 15.09028
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Part ofLate Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily)
1024rev-002
Inscription2002 (26th Session)
Area38.5 ha (4,140,000 sq ft)
Buffer zone80.13 ha (8,625,000 sq ft)
Piazza Duomo (Cathedral Square)
u Liotru, symbol of Catania
Stesichorus Square and Bellini's Monument (Piazza Stesicoro – Monumento a Vincenzo Bellini)

Catania (UK: n-/, US: ə/,[3][4] Sicilian and Italian: [kaˈtaːnja] (About this soundlisten)) is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, and the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy. The population of the city proper is 320,000 while the population of the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan City of Catania, stood at 1,116,168 inhabitants.

Catania was destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes in 1169[5] and 1693, and by several volcanic eruptions from the neighbouring Mount Etna, the most violent of which was in 1669.[5]

Catania was founded in the 8th century BC by Chalcidians.[5] In 1434, the first university in Sicily was founded in the city.[5] In the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania was one of Italy's most important cultural, artistic and political centres.[5]

The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy. Its old town, besides being one of the biggest examples of baroque architecture in Italy, is a World Heritage Site, protected by UNESCO.

Catania has been a native or adoptive homeland of some of Italy's most famous artists and writers, including composers Vincenzo Bellini and Giovanni Pacini, and writers Giovanni Verga, Luigi Capuana, Federico De Roberto and Nino Martoglio.

The city is the main industrial, logistical and commercial center of Sicily. It is the home of the Catania-Fontanarossa Airport, the largest in Southern Italy.

Etymology

The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location. The Sicilian word, katane, means "grater, flaying knife, skinning place" or a "crude tool apt to pare". Other translations of the name are "harsh lands", "uneven ground", "sharp stones", or "rugged or rough soil". The latter etymologies are easily justifiable since, for many centuries following an eruption, the city has always been rebuilt within its black-lava landscape.[6] Around 729 BC, the ancient village of Katane became the Chalcidian colony of Katánē where the native population was rapidly Hellenized. The Naxian founders, coming from the adjacent coast, later used the name for their new settlement along the River Amenano.

Around 263 BC, the city was variously known as Catĭna and Catăna (Greek: Κατάνη, Ancient Greek: [katánεː]; Latin: Catana, pronounced [ˈkatana], and Catina.[7]). The former has been primarily used for its supposed assonance with catina, the Latin feminization of the name catinus.[8] Catinus has two meanings: "a gulf, a basin or a bay" and "a bowl, a vessel or a trough", thanks to the city’s distinctive topography.

Around 900, when Catania was part of the emirate of Sicily, it was known in Arabic as Balad al-fīl (بلد الفيل) and Madinat al-fīl (مدينة الفيل). The former means "The Village (or the Country) of the Elephant", while the latter means "The City of the Elephant".[9] The Elephant is the lava sculpture over the fountain in Piazza Duomo. Most likely a prehistoric sculpture that was reforged during the Byzantine Era, it appears to be a talisman that was reputedly powerful enough to protect the city from enemies and to keep away misfortune, plagues, or natural calamities. Another Arab toponym was Qaṭāniyyah (قطانية), allegedly from the Arabic word for the "leguminous plants".[10] Pulses like lentils, beans, peas, broad beans, and lupins were chiefly cultivated in the plains around the city well before the arrival of Aghlabids. Afterwards, many Arabic agronomists developed these crops and the citrus orchards in the area around the city. The toponym Wadi Musa (وادي موسى), or "Valley of Moses" (from the Arabic name of the Simeto River), was rarely used.[10][11][12]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Catania
العربية: قطانية
aragonés: Catania
asturianu: Catania
Aymar aru: Catania
azərbaycanca: Kataniya
تۆرکجه: کاتانیا
Bân-lâm-gú: Catania
беларуская: Катанія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Катанія
български: Катания
bosanski: Catania
brezhoneg: Catania
català: Catània
čeština: Katánie
corsu: Catania
dansk: Catania
Deutsch: Catania
eesti: Catania
Ελληνικά: Κατάνια
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Catania
español: Catania
Esperanto: Katanio
euskara: Catania
فارسی: کاتانیا
français: Catane
Gaeilge: Catania
galego: Catania
한국어: 카타니아
հայերեն: Կատանիա
hrvatski: Catania
Bahasa Indonesia: Catania
Ирон: Катани
íslenska: Catania
italiano: Catania
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕಟೇನಿಯ
ქართული: კატანია
қазақша: Катания
Kiswahili: Catania
kurdî: Catania
Latina: Catana
latviešu: Katānija
lietuvių: Katanija
lumbaart: Catania
magyar: Catania
मराठी: कातानिया
მარგალური: კატანია
Bahasa Melayu: Catania
Nederlands: Catania (stad)
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: Catania
日本語: カターニア
Napulitano: Catania
нохчийн: Катани
norsk: Catania
norsk nynorsk: Catania
occitan: Catània
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kataniya
پنجابی: کاٹانیا
Piemontèis: Catania
polski: Katania
português: Catânia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Catania
română: Catania
Runa Simi: Catania
русский: Катания
संस्कृतम्: कटानिया
sardu: Catania
Scots: Catania
sicilianu: Catania
Simple English: Catania
slovenčina: Catania
slovenščina: Catania
српски / srpski: Катанија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Catania
suomi: Catania
svenska: Catania
tarandíne: Catania
татарча/tatarça: Катания
tetun: Catania
Türkçe: Katanya
Twi: Catania
українська: Катанія
اردو: کاتانیا
vèneto: Catania
Tiếng Việt: Catania
Volapük: Catania
Winaray: Catania
吴语: 卡塔尼亚
粵語: 卡坦尼亞
中文: 卡塔尼亞