Catalonia

Catalonia
Autonomous community
Senyera
Flag
Coat of arms of Catalonia
Coat of arms
Anthem: Els Segadors (Catalan)
"The Reapers"
Map of Catalonia in Spain
Location of Catalonia in Spain (red)
Catalonia in Spain and Europe
Location of  Catalonia  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in Spain  (green)

Coordinates: 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41.817; 1.467
CountrySpain
StatusAutonomous community (styled as nationality)
Formation988 (Catalan Counties)
1137 (Union with Aragon)
1283 (Catalan constitutions)
1469 (Union of Castile and Aragon under Catholic Monarchs)
1716 (Nueva Planta decrees)
Statute of Autonomy9 September 1932
18 September 1979
9 August 2006 (current version)
Capital
and largest city
Barcelona
41°23′N 2°11′E / 41°23′N 2°11′E / 41.383; 2.183
ProvincesBarcelona, Girona, Lleida, Tarragona
Government
 • TypeDevolved government in a constitutional monarchy
 • BodyGeneralitat of Catalonia
 • PresidentQuim Torra (JuntsxCat)
 • LegislatureParliament
 • Congress of Deputies47 Deputies (of 350)
 • Senate16 Senators (of 264)
Area[2]
 • Total32,108 km2 (12,397 sq mi)
Area rank6th in Spain
Population (2016)
 • Total7,522,596[1]
 • Rank2nd in Spain (16%)
 • Density234/km2 (610/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Catalan or Catalonian
català, -ana (ca)
catalán, -ana (es)
catalan, -a (oc)
GDP (nominal; 2012)[3]
 • Total$255.204 billion
 • Per capita$33,580
GDP (PPP; 2012)[3]
 • Total$336.162 billion
 • Per capita$43,837
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code+34 93 (Barcelona area)
+34 97 (rest of Catalonia)
ISO 3166 codeES-CT
Official languagesCatalan, Occitan (Aranese),[a] Spanish,[b]
Catalan Sign Language (also recognised)
Patron saintsSaint George (Sant Jordi), Virgin of Montserrat
Websitegencat.cat

Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, Occitan: Catalonha, Spanish: Cataluña)[c] is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.[d][7] Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.[8]

In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In 1137, Catalonia and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, and the Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all their distinct institutions, courts (parliament), and constitutions.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, supressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. From the late 1950s through to the 1970s, Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

Etymology and pronunciation

The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans (Cathalanenses) in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives.[9] The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence.

One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia (or Gauthia) Launia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Cathalaunia > Catalonia theoretically derived.[10][11] During the Middle Ages, Byzantine chroniclers claimed that Catalania derives from the local medley of Goths with Alans, initially constituting a Goth-Alania.[12]

Other less plausible or recent theories suggest:

  • Catalunya derives from the term "land of castles", having evolved from the term castlà or castlan, the medieval term for a castellan (a ruler of a castle).[10][13] This theory therefore suggests that the names Catalunya and Castile have a common root.
  • The source is of Celtic origin, meaning "chiefs of battle". Although the area is not known to have been occupied by the Celtiberians, a Celtic culture was present within the interior of the Iberian Peninsula in pre-Roman times.[14]
  • The Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved by metathesis to Katelans and then Catalans.[15]
  • Miguel Vidal, finding serious shortcomings with earlier proposals (such as that an original -t- would have, by normal sound laws in the local Romance languages, developed into -d-), suggested an Arabic etymology: qattāl (قتالو, pl. qattālūn قتالون) – meaning "killer" – could have been applied by Muslims to groups of raiders and bandits on the southern border of the Marca Hispanica.[16] The name, originally derogatory, could have been reappropiated by Christians as an autonym. This is comparable to attested development of the term Almogavar in nearby areas. In this model, the name Catalunya derives from the plural qattālūn while the adjective and language name català derives from the singular qattāl, both with the addition of common Romance suffixes.[17]

In English, Catalonia is pronounced ə/. The native name, Catalunya, is pronounced [kətəˈluɲə] in Central Catalan, the most widely spoken variety, whose pronunciation is considered standard.[18] The Spanish name is Cataluña ([kataˈluɲa]), and the Aranese name is Catalonha ([kataˈluɲɔ]).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Katalonië
Alemannisch: Katalonien
አማርኛ: ካታሎኒያ
العربية: كتالونيا
aragonés: Catalunya
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܛܠܘܢܝܐ
asturianu: Cataluña
Avañe'ẽ: Katalúña
azərbaycanca: Kataloniya
تۆرکجه: کاتالونیا
Bân-lâm-gú: Catalunya
башҡортса: Каталония
беларуская: Каталонія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Каталёнія
भोजपुरी: कैटालोनिया
Bikol Central: Katalunya
български: Каталония
Boarisch: Katalonien
bosanski: Katalonija
brezhoneg: Katalonia
буряад: Каталони
català: Catalunya
Cebuano: Katalunya
čeština: Katalánsko
corsu: Catalunia
Cymraeg: Catalwnia
dansk: Catalonien
davvisámegiella: Katalonia
Deutsch: Katalonien
dolnoserbski: Kataloniska
eesti: Kataloonia
Ελληνικά: Καταλονία
español: Cataluña
Esperanto: Katalunio
estremeñu: Cataluña
فارسی: کاتالونیا
français: Catalogne
Frysk: Kataloanje
Gaeilge: An Chatalóin
Gàidhlig: Catalòinia
galego: Cataluña
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Catalunya
한국어: 카탈루냐
Hausa: Katalunya
հայերեն: Կատալոնիա
हिन्दी: कातालोनिया
hornjoserbsce: Katalanska
hrvatski: Katalonija
Bahasa Indonesia: Catalunya
interlingua: Catalonia
Interlingue: Catalonia
íslenska: Katalónía
italiano: Catalogna
עברית: קטלוניה
Basa Jawa: Catalunya
Kapampangan: Catalonia
къарачай-малкъар: Каталония
ქართული: კატალონია
kaszëbsczi: Katalońskô
қазақша: Каталония
kernowek: Kataloni
Kiswahili: Catalonia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kataloy
kurdî: Katalonya
Кыргызча: Каталония
Ladino: Katalunya
Latina: Catalaunia
latviešu: Katalonija
Lëtzebuergesch: Katalounien
lietuvių: Katalonija
Ligure: Catalogna
Limburgs: Catalonië
Livvinkarjala: Katalunii
lumbaart: Catalògna
magyar: Katalónia
македонски: Каталонија
മലയാളം: കാറ്റലോണിയ
Māori: Catalonia
მარგალური: კატალონია
مازِرونی: کاتالونیا
Bahasa Melayu: Catalonia
Nederlands: Catalonië
нохчийн: Каталони
Nordfriisk: Kataloonien
norsk: Catalonia
norsk nynorsk: Catalonia
Nouormand: Catalongne
Novial: Katalunia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kataloniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਤਾਲੋਨੀਆ
پنجابی: کیتلونیا
Picard: Catalongne
polski: Katalonia
português: Catalunha
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kataloniya
reo tahiti: Tatarūnia
română: Catalonia
Runa Simi: Katalunya
русский: Каталония
sardu: Catalugna
Scots: Catalonie
Seeltersk: Katalonien
shqip: Katalonia
sicilianu: Catalugna
Simple English: Catalonia
slovenčina: Katalánsko
slovenščina: Katalonija
ślůnski: Katalůńijo
Soomaaliga: Katalooniya
کوردی: کەتەلۆنیا
српски / srpski: Каталонија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Katalonija
suomi: Katalonia
svenska: Katalonien
Tagalog: Cataluña
Taqbaylit: Katalunya
tarandíne: Catalogna
татарча/tatarça: Каталония
Türkçe: Katalonya
Türkmençe: Kataloniýa
удмурт: Каталония
українська: Каталонія
vèneto: Catełogna
Tiếng Việt: Catalunya
Volapük: Katalonän
Võro: Kataloonia
walon: Catalogne
West-Vlams: Catalonië
Winaray: Catalunya
ייִדיש: קאטאלאניע
Zazaki: Katalonya
žemaitėška: Kataluonėjė
Lingua Franca Nova: Catalunia