Casuarina

Casuarina
Casuarina equisetifolia 0004.jpg
Casuarina equisetifolia, showing red female flowers and mature fruits
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Fagales
Family:Casuarinaceae
Genus:Casuarina
L.[1][2]
Type species
Casuarina equisetifolia[2]
L.
Species

See text

Casuarina distribution.svg
Fruit of C. equisetifolia
Casuarina sp.: cones and samaras at the Muséum de Toulouse, France.

Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, and islands of the western Pacific Ocean. It was once treated as the sole genus in the family, but has been split into three Australian genera and a fourth (see: Casuarinaceae).[3][1]

Casuarina equisetifolia at Chikhaldara, India.

They are evergreen shrubs and trees growing to 35 m (115 ft) tall. The slender, green to grey-green twigs bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 5–20. The apetalous flowers are produced in small catkin-like inflorescences. Most species are dioecious, but a few are monoecious. The fruit is a woody, oval structure superficially resembling a conifer cone, made up of numerous carpels, each containing a single seed with a small wing.[3][4] The generic name is derived from the Malay word for the cassowary, kasuari, alluding to the similarities between the bird's feathers and the plant's foliage,[5] though the tree is called rhu in current standard Malay.

Wilson and Johnson[6] distinguish the two very closely related genera, Casuarina and Allocasuarina on the basis of:

  • Casuarina: the mature samaras being grey or yellow-brown, and dull; cone bracteoles thinly woody, prominent, extending well beyond cone body, with no dorsal protuberance;
  • Allocasuarina: the mature samaras being red-brown to black, and shiny; cone bracteoles thickly woody and convex, mostly extending only slightly beyond cone body, and usually with a separate angular, divided or spiny dorsal protuberance.

Ecology

Casuarina species are a food source of the larvae of hepialid moths; members of the genus Aenetus, including A. lewinii and A. splendens, burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down. Endoclita malabaricus also feeds on Casuarina. The noctuid turnip moth is also recorded feeding on Casuarina.

Pedunculagin, casuarictin, strictinin, casuarinin and casuariin are ellagitannins found in the species within the genus.[7]

Other Languages
العربية: كازارينا
català: Casuarina
Cebuano: Casuarina
čeština: Přesličník
Deutsch: Kasuarinen
español: Casuarina
Esperanto: Kasuarino
français: Casuarina
hrvatski: Presličnjak
Ilokano: Casuarina
italiano: Casuarina
עברית: קזוארינה
кырык мары: Казуарина
magyar: Kazuárfa
norsk: Casuarina
Перем Коми: Казуарина
polski: Rzewnia
português: Casuarina
русский: Казуарина
svenska: Casuarina
தமிழ்: சவுக்கு
తెలుగు: సరుగుడు
Türkçe: Casuarina
удмурт: Казуарина
українська: Казуарина
Tiếng Việt: Casuarina
Winaray: Casuarina
中文: 木麻黄属