Castile and León

Castile and León
Castilla y León (in Spanish)
Castiella y Llión (in Leonese)
Castela e León (in Galician)
Autonomous community
Castilla y León (in Spanish)
Flag of Castile and León
Flag
Coat-of-arms of Castile and León
Coat of arms
Map of Castile and León
Location of Castile and León within Spain
Coordinates: 41°23′N 4°27′W / 41°23′N 4°27′W / 41.383; -4.450
CountrySpain
CapitalUndeclared (Valladolid de facto[1])
Government
 • PresidentJuan Vicente Herrera (PP)
Area
 • Total94,222 km2 (36,379 sq mi)
Area rank1st (18.6% of Spain)
Population (2016)
 • Total2,447,519
 • Density26/km2 (67/sq mi)
 • Pop. rank6th
 • Percent5.42% of Spain
Demonym(s)Castilian-Leonese,
Castilian/Leonese
ISO 3166-2ES-CL
Official languagesSpanish (Leonese and Galician have special status)
Statute of Autonomy2 March 1983
ParliamentCortes of Castile and León
Congress seats31 (of 350)
Senate seats39 (of 266)
WebsiteJunta de Castilla y León

Castile and León (UK: n/, US: n/; Spanish: Castilla y León [kasˈtiʎa i leˈon] (About this sound listen); Leonese: Castiella y Llión [kasˈtjeʎa i ʎiˈoŋ]; Galician: Castela e León [kasˈtɛla e leˈoŋ]) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was constituted in 1983, although it existed for the first time during the First Spanish Republic in the 19th century. León first appeared as a Kingdom in 910, whilst the Kingdom of Castile gained an independent identity in 1065 and was intermittently held in personal union with León before merging with it permanently in 1230. It is the largest autonomous community in Spain and the third largest region of the European Union, covering an area of 94,223 square kilometres (36,380 sq mi) with an official population of around 2.5 million (2011).

From the beginning of the federalist debate in Spain in the 19th century during the First Spanish Republic there were projects of autonomy for a Castile and León region, as the project of Castilian Mancomunity, Bases de Segovia, Castilian Provincial League or Castilian Federal Pact, but also including current Cantabria and La Rioja.[2][3] Same project that continued to exist during the Second Spanish Republic[4][5] and that was finally carried out after the Constitution of 1978 , but without Cantabria and La Rioja that, although it was considered to include them, finally formed uniprovincial autonomies.

Its Statute of Autonomy declares in its preamble:

The Autonomous Community of Castile and León arises from the modern union of the historical territories that composed and gave name to the old crowns of León and Castile. Eleven hundred years ago, the Kingdom of León was constituted, from which that of Castile and Galicia were dislodged as kingdoms throughout the 9th century, and, in 1143, that of Portugal. During these two centuries the monarchs who held the government of these lands attained the dignity of emperors, as attested by the terms of Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII.[citation needed]

In Castile and León, more than 60% of all of Spain's heritage sites are found (architectural, artistic, cultural, etc.).[6] All of which translate into: 8 World Heritage sites, almost 1800 classified cultural heritage assets, 112 historic sites, 400 museums, more than 500 castles, of which 16 are considered of high historical value, 12 cathedrals, 1 concathedral, and the largest concentration of Romanesque art in the world. With 8 World Heritage sites, Castile and León is the region of the world with more cultural assets distinguished by the highest protection figure granted by Unesco, ahead of the Italian regions of Tuscany and Lombardy, both with 6 sites.[7][8]

Also, the Montes de Valsaín mountains and the Béjar and Francia mountain ranges, in the Sistema Central, the valleys of Laciana, Omaña y Luna and the Picos de Europa and Los Ancares, in the Cantabrian Mountains, and the Iberian Plateau, in the border area with Portugal, have been declared biosphere reserve by UNESCO, which also recognizes the geopark of La Lora with this figure of protection.[9] In addition, Castile and León is strongly related to two of the records of the Memory of the World Programme of UNESCO which are the Decreta of the Cortes of León of 1188, curia regia considered the birthplace of worldwide parliamentarism by the institution itself,[10] and the Treaty of Tordesillas.[11]

The Index of development of social services reflects that the community has one of the best social services in the country, positioning itself as the third autonomy that offers the best benefits to its citizens, after the Basque Country and Navarre.[12] Its education, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment report of 2015, leads the scores in reading and sciences with a score comparable to that of the ten best countries in the study.[13]

23 April is designated Castile and León Day, commemorating the defeat of the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar during the Revolt of the Comuneros, in 1521.[citation needed]

Symbols

Symbols of Castile and León in the cathedral of Burgos.

The Statute of Autonomy of Castile and León, reformed for the last time in 2007, establishes in the sixth article of its preliminary title the symbols of the community's exclusive identity. These are: the coat of arms, the flag, the banner and the anthem. Its legal protection is the same as that corresponding to the symbols of the State -whose outrages are classified as crime in article 543 of the Penal Code-.[14][15]

In the articulated statuary, the coat of arms is defined as follows:[14]

The coat of arms of Castile and León is a stamped shield by open royal crown, barracked in cross. The first and fourth quartering: in the field of gules, a merloned golden castle of three merlons, drafted of sable and rinse of azure. The second and third quartering: in a silver field, a rampant lion of purple, lingued, dyed and armed with gules, crowned with gold.

Likewise, the flag is described as follows:[14]

The flag of Castile and León is quartered and contains the symbols of Castile and León, as described in the previous section. The flag will fly in all the centres and official acts of the Community, to the right of the Spanish flag.

Following the same wording, the banner is constituted by the shield quartered on a traditional crimson background. The Statute also expresses: "The anthem and the other symbols [...] will be regulated by specific law". After the promulgation of the fundamental norm, this law was not promulgated, so the anthem does not exist, but de iure is a symbol of autonomy.[14]

Other Languages
Avañe'ẽ: Castilla y León
azərbaycanca: Kastiliya və Leon
Bân-lâm-gú: Castilla kap León
беларуская: Кастылія і Леон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кастылія і Леон
Bikol Central: Castilla asin Leon
български: Кастилия и Леон
čeština: Kastilie a León
estremeñu: Castilla i Lión
Gàidhlig: Castilla y León
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Castilla lâu León
Hawaiʻi: Castille a Leon
Bahasa Indonesia: Castilla y León
interlingua: Castilia e León
íslenska: Kastilía-León
Basa Jawa: Castile-Leon
kernowek: Kastil ha Leon
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kastil ak Leon
Lëtzebuergesch: Kastilien-León
македонски: Кастиља и Леон
Bahasa Melayu: Castile-León
Nederlands: Castilië en León
Norfuk / Pitkern: Castiil a' Liion
norsk nynorsk: Castilla y León
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Castilla y León
Piemontèis: Castija e León
português: Castela e Leão
Seeltersk: Kastilien-León
Simple English: Castile and León
српски / srpski: Кастиља и Леон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kastilja i Leon
tarandíne: Castiglia e León
українська: Кастилія і Леон
Tiếng Việt: Castilla và León
West-Vlams: Castilië en León
Lingua Franca Nova: Castelia e Leon