Cassava

Cassava
Illustration of plant leaves and flowers
Leaves of the cassava plant
Photograph of oblong brown tuber
A manioc tuber
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Family:Euphorbiaceae
Genus:Manihot
Species:M. esculenta
Binomial name
Manihot esculenta
Synonyms[1]
  • Janipha aipi (Pohl) J.Presl
  • Janipha manihot (L.) Kunth
  • Jatropha aipi (Pohl) Göpp.
  • Jatropha diffusa (Pohl) Steud.
  • Jatropha digitiformis (Pohl) Steud.
  • Jatropha dulcis J.F.Gmel.
  • Jatropha flabellifolia (Pohl) Steud.
  • Jatropha loureiroi (Pohl) Steud.
  • Jatropha manihot L.
  • Jatropha mitis Rottb.
  • Jatropha paniculata Ruiz & Pav. ex Pax
  • Jatropha silvestris Vell.
  • Jatropha stipulata Vell.
  • Mandioca aipi (Pohl) Link
  • Mandioca dulcis (J.F.Gmel.) D.Parodi
  • Mandioca utilissima (Pohl) Link
  • Manihot aipi Pohl
  • Manihot aypi Spruce
  • Manihot cannabina Sweet
  • Manihot diffusa Pohl
  • Manihot digitiformis Pohl
  • Manihot dulcis (J.F.Gmel.) Baill.
  • Manihot edule A.Rich.
  • Manihot edulis A.Rich.
  • Manihot flabellifolia Pohl
  • Manihot flexuosa Pax & K.Hoffm.
  • Manihot loureiroi Pohl
  • Manihot melanobasis Müll. Arg.
  • Manihot sprucei Pax
  • Manihot utilissima Pohl

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava (ə/), manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot,[2] is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Though it is often called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it differs from yucca, an unrelated fruit-bearing shrub in the family Asparagaceae. Cassava, when dried to a powdery (or pearly) extract, is called tapioca; its fried, granular form is named garri.

Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice and maize.[3][4] Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.[5] It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of dried cassava.

Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain antinutritional factors and toxins, with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts.[6] It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication,[7][8] goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death. The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.[7][6] Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.[9]

Description

The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1 mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial cultivars can be 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter at the top, and around 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. A woody vascular bundle runs along the root's axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in starch and contain small amounts of calcium (16 mg/100 g), phosphorus (27 mg/100 g), and vitamin C (20.6 mg/100 g).[10] However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the amino acid methionine and possibly tryptophan.[11]

Details of cassava plants
Unprocessed roots
Leaf
Leaf detail
Picked buds
Seeds
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Broodwortel
العربية: بفرة
Avañe'ẽ: Mandi'o
azərbaycanca: Maniok
বাংলা: কাসাভা
Bahasa Banjar: Jawaw
Bân-lâm-gú: Chhiū-chî
беларуская: Маніёк
Bikol Central: Balinghoy
Bislama: Maniok
български: Маниока
català: Mandioca
čeština: Maniok jedlý
Chi-Chewa: Chinangwa
dansk: Kassava
Deutsch: Maniok
dolnoserbski: Pšawy maniok
Ελληνικά: Κασάβα
Esperanto: Manioko
euskara: Manioka
فارسی: مانیوک
français: Manioc
Gaeilge: Casabhach
galego: Mandioca
Gĩkũyũ: Mĩanga
한국어: 카사바
Hausa: Rogo
हिन्दी: कसावा
hornjoserbsce: Prawy maniok
hrvatski: Manioka
Ido: Manioko
Ilokano: Balinghoy
Bahasa Indonesia: Ketela pohon
íslenska: Kassavarót
Basa Jawa: Ketéla pohung
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮರಗೆಣಸು
kaszëbsczi: Jôdny maniok
Kiswahili: Muhogo
Kongo: Mandioko
Kreyòl ayisyen: Manyòk dous
latviešu: Manioka
lingála: Manyɔ́kɔ
magyar: Manióka
മലയാളം: മരച്ചീനി
Bahasa Melayu: Ubi kayu
Baso Minangkabau: Ubi Parancih
Nāhuatl: Cuauhcamohtli
Nederlands: Cassave
日本語: キャッサバ
Nordfriisk: Maniok
norsk: Maniok
occitan: Maniòc
português: Mandioca
reo tahiti: Māniota
Runa Simi: Rumu
Scots: Cassava
Simple English: Manioc
slovenščina: Manioka
српски / srpski: Tapioka
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manioka
Basa Sunda: Sampeu
suomi: Maniokki
svenska: Maniok
தமிழ்: மரவள்ளி
lea faka-Tonga: Mānioke
Türkçe: Manyok
українська: Маніок їстівний
اردو: کاساوا
Vahcuengh: Moegsawz
Tiếng Việt: Sắn
Winaray: Bilanghoy
ייִדיש: מאניאק
Yorùbá: Ẹ̀gẹ́
粵語: 木薯
中文: 木薯