Cartagena, Spain

Cartagena
Cartagena palacio consistorial5.jpg
Muralla de Carlos III (Muralla del Mar).JPG
Teatro romano cartagena 1.jpg
PalacioPedreño.JPG
Gran Hotel2.JPG
Cartagena
Flag of Cartagena
Flag
Coat of arms of Cartagena
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Muy noble, muy leal y siempre heroica ciudad de Cartagena
Cartagena is located in Murcia
Cartagena
Cartagena
Location in Spain
Cartagena is located in Spain
Cartagena
Cartagena
Cartagena (Spain)
Coordinates: 37°36′N 0°59′W / 37°36′N 0°59′W / 37.600; -0.983

Cartagena (Spanish pronunciation: [kaɾtaˈxena]; Latin: Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain. As of January 2011, it has a population of 218,210 inhabitants[1] being the Region’s second largest municipality and the country’s 6th non-Province capital city. The metropolitan area of Cartagena, known as Campo de Cartagena, has a population of 409,586 inhabitants.

Cartagena has been inhabited for over two millennia, being founded around 227 BC[2] by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal the Fair[3] as Qart Hadasht (Phoenician, meaning 'New Town') the same name as the original city of Carthage. The city had its heyday during the Roman Empire, when it was known as Carthago Nova (the New Carthage) and Carthago Spartaria, capital of the province of Carthaginensis. It was one of the important cities during the Umayyad invasion of Hispania, under its Arabic name of Qartayannat al-Halfa.

Much of the historical weight of Cartagena in the past goes to its coveted defensive port, one of the most important in the western Mediterranean. Cartagena has been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the Mediterranean since the arrival of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. As far back as the 16th century it was one of the most important naval ports in Spain, together with Ferrol in the North. It is still an important naval seaport, the main military haven of Spain, and is home to a large naval shipyard.

The confluence of civilizations as well as its strategic harbour, together with the rise of the local mining industry is manifested by a unique artistic heritage, with a number of landmarks such as the Roman Theatre, the second largest of the Iberian Peninsula after the one in Mérida, an abundance of Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine and Moorish remains, and a plethora of Art Nouveau buildings, a result of the bourgeoisie from the early 20th century. Cartagena is now established as a major cruise ship destination[4] in the Mediterranean and an emerging cultural focus.

It is the first of a number of cities that eventually have been named Cartagena, most notably Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena of the Indies) in Colombia.

Geography and climate

Geography and relief

The city of Cartagena is located in the southeastern region of Spain in the Campo de Cartagena. The Cartagena region can be viewed as a great plain inclined slightly in the direction NW-SE, bordered at the north and the northwest by pre-coastal mountain ranges (Carrascoy, El Puerto, Los Villares, Columbares and Escalona), and at the south and southwest by coastal mountain ranges (El Algarrobo, La Muela, Pelayo, Gorda, La Fausilla y Minera, with its last spurs in Cape Palos). The dominant geology of the region is metamorphic (slate, marble) and sedimentary (limestone).

The city is located just at the end of the new AP-7 motorway. The following villages are part of Cartagena municipality: La Azohía, Isla Plana, Los Urrutias and Los Nietos.

The Old Town is limited by five small hills (Molinete, Monte Sacro, Monte de San José, Despeñaperros and Monte de la Concepción) following the example of Rome. In the past, there was an inner sea between the hills called the Estero that eventually dried up. On this site, the "Ensanche" (Expansion or New Town) was built at the beginning of the 20th century.

The urban area is delimited or crossed by several watercourses, some of which go deep into the urban network during a large part of their courses.

Climate

Cartagena has a hot semi-arid climate. Its location near the ocean moderates the temperature, and annual precipitation typically does not surpass 300 mm (12 in). The annual average temperature goes up to around 20.4 °C (69 °F), making it the warmest city in Europe. The coldest month is January, with an average temperature of 13.7 °C (57 °F). In August, the warmest month, the average temperature is 28.7 °C (84 °F). The wind is an important climatic factor in the region.

Climate data for Cartagena, Murcia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
28.2
(82.8)
30.5
(86.9)
34.8
(94.6)
37.3
(99.1)
39.6
(103.3)
43.8
(110.8)
42.1
(107.8)
38.7
(101.7)
34.1
(93.4)
30.8
(87.4)
24.6
(76.3)
43.8
(110.8)
Average high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
19.3
(66.7)
20.4
(68.7)
22.0
(71.6)
24.3
(75.7)
28.4
(83.1)
33.5
(92.3)
33.1
(91.6)
30.0
(86)
27.5
(81.5)
22.7
(72.9)
19.6
(67.3)
24.9
(76.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
14.6
(58.3)
15.4
(59.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.1
(68.2)
24.0
(75.2)
28.2
(82.8)
28.7
(83.7)
25.7
(78.3)
22.8
(73)
19.0
(66.2)
15.1
(59.2)
20.4
(68.7)
Average low °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
9.9
(49.8)
10.4
(50.7)
12.6
(54.7)
15.8
(60.4)
19.7
(67.5)
22.9
(73.2)
24.3
(75.7)
21.5
(70.7)
18.1
(64.6)
15.3
(59.5)
10.6
(51.1)
15.9
(60.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27
(1.06)
19
(0.75)
24
(0.94)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
12
(0.47)
3
(0.12)
6
(0.24)
26
(1.02)
49
(1.93)
37
(1.46)
36
(1.42)
295
(11.61)
Average rainy days 5.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 39
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 7
Percent possible sunshine 50 55 50 54 64 60 71 64 58 55 60 50 58
Source #1: "Atlas Climático de Murcia". AEMET. 2014.
Source #2: Various sources: Atlas de Murcia,[5] University of Murcia,[6] rain amount is from climate-data.org[7] Weather Atlas (sunshine data) [8]
Climate data for Cartagena
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.8
(58.6)
14.4
(57.9)
14.6
(58.3)
16.6
(61.9)
18.9
(66.0)
22.0
(71.6)
24.7
(76.5)
25.9
(78.6)
24.4
(75.9)
22.0
(71.6)
19.3
(66.7)
16.6
(61.9)
19.5
(67.1)
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 12.6
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 9 7 5 3 2 5.8
Source: Weather Atlas [8]
Other Languages
አማርኛ: ካርታሔና
aragonés: Cartachena
asturianu: Cartagena
تۆرکجه: کارتاخنا
Bân-lâm-gú: Cartagena (Se-pan-gâ)
беларуская: Картахена
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Картахэна
български: Картахена
català: Cartagena
čeština: Cartagena
Ελληνικά: Καρθαγένη
euskara: Cartagena
فارسی: کارتاخنا
galego: Cartaxena
հայերեն: Նոր Կարթագեն
Bahasa Indonesia: Cartagena, Spanyol
қазақша: Картахена
Ladino: Kartagena
latviešu: Kartahena
Bahasa Melayu: Cartagena, Sepanyol
монгол: Картахена
Nederlands: Cartagena (Spanje)
norsk nynorsk: Cartagena i Spania
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Cartagena
پنجابی: کارتیگانا
polski: Kartagena
русский: Картахена
संस्कृतम्: कार्टाजेना
Simple English: Cartagena
ślůnski: Cartagena
српски / srpski: Картахена
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cartagena
Tiếng Việt: Cartagena, Tây Ban Nha
粵語: 卡塔赫納