Carl Bosch was born in
Cologne, Germany to a successful gas and plumbing supplier.
 His uncle
Robert Bosch pioneered the development of the spark plug. Carl, trying to decide between a career in metallurgy or chemistry, studied at the Königlich
Charlottenburg (now the
Technical University of Berlin) and the
University of Leipzig from 1892–1898.
Carl Bosch attended the University of Leipzig, and this is where he studied under Johannes Wislicenus,
 and he obtained his doctorate in 1898 for research in organic chemistry. After he left In 1899 he took an entry level job at
BASF, then Germany's largest chemical and dye firm. From 1909 until 1913 he transformed
Fritz Haber's tabletop demonstration of a method to fix nitrogen using high pressure chemistry into an important industrial process to produce megatons of fertilizer and explosives. The fully developed system is called the
Haber–Bosch process. His contribution was to make this process work on a large industrial scale. To do this, he had to construct a plant and equipment that would function effectively under high gas pressures and high temperatures. There were many more obstacles as well, such as discovering a practical catalyst, designing large compressors and safe high-pressure furnaces. A means was needed to provide pure hydrogen gas in quantity as the
feedstock. Also, cheap and safe means had to be developed to clean and process the product
ammonia. The first full-scale Haber-Bosch plant was erected in Oppau, Germany, now part of
Ludwigshafen. With the process complete he was able to synthesize large amounts of ammonia, which was available for the industrial and agricultural fields. In fact, this production has increased the agricultural yields throughout the world.
 This work won him the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1931.
World War I Bosch extended high-pressure techniques to the production of
synthetic fuel and
methanol. In 1925 Bosch helped found and was the first head of
IG Farben and from 1935 chairman of the board of directors. He received the
Siemens-Ring in 1924 for his contributions to applied research and his support of basic research. In 1931 he was awarded the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with
Friedrich Bergius for the introduction of high pressure chemistry. Today the Haber–Bosch process produces 100 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer every year.