Caracas

Caracas
Capital City
Santiago de León de Caracas
Caracas Venezuela.png
Flag of Caracas
Flag
Coat of arms of Caracas
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): La Sultana del Ávila (The Avila's Sultana)
La Sucursal del Cielo (Heaven's Branch on Earth)
La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (The City of Eternal Spring)
Motto(s): Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad
Caracas is located in Venezuela
Caracas
Caracas
Location in Venezuela and South America
Caracas is located in South America
Caracas
Caracas
Caracas (South America)
Coordinates: 10°28′50″N 66°54′13″W / 10°28′50″N 66°54′13″W / 10.48056; -66.90361
CountryVenezuela
StateCapital District
Founded25 July 1567
Founded byDiego de Losada
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyGovernment of the Capital District
 • Chief of GovernmentCarolina Cestari
Area
 • Capital City433 km2 (167 sq mi)
 • Metro4,715.1 km2 (1,820.5 sq mi)
Elevation900 m (3,000 ft)
Highest elevation1,400 m (4,600 ft)
Lowest elevation870 m (2,850 ft)
Population (2017)[1]
 • Capital City1,945,901
 • Density4,212.9/km2 (10,911/sq mi)
 • Metro2,967,626
 • Metro density1,123.4/km2 (2,910/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Caraquenian (Spanish: caraqueño (m), caraqueña (f))
Time zoneUTC−04:00 (VST)
Postal codes [2]1000 - 1090, 1209
Area code212
ISO 3166 codeVE-A
WebsiteCapital District
The area and population figures are the sum of the figures of the five municipalities (listed above) that make up the Distrito Metropolitano.

Caracas (Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾakas]), officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m (2,490 and 3,740 ft) above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range. The valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high (7,200 ft) mountain range, Cerro El Ávila; to the south there are more hills and mountains. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 7,267,102.[citation needed]

Strictly speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square,[3] even though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in Los Caobos neighbourhood[4][5] and extends along the Boulevard of Sabana Grande to the east.[6] Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are also considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas,[7][8] commonly called "Greater Caracas". The political-administrative division of Caracas has not yet been updated, but the project has been discussed several times.[4]

Businesses in the city include service companies, banks, and malls. Caracas has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area.[9] The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is also Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, museums, and shopping centers. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas.[10]

Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist, industrial and economic centers of Latin America. The Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are also noteworthy.[11] The National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena.[12] Boulevard of Sabana Grande is the main commercial corridor of the city and is visited by more than 500 thousand people every day.[13] In 2011, the pedestrian space of Sabana Grande quadrupled.[14] Sabana Grande is a broad, tree-shaded, pedestrians-only boulevard lined on both sides with stylish fashion boutiques, gift shops and street art.[15][16]

Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers. It has a nominal GDP of 91988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars. Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. The Parque Central Towers still boast the title of the highest twin towers in Latin America, even though they are no longer the tallest skyscrapers in the region. In Caracas, the tallest skyscrapers are: Parque Central Towers, Banco Mercantil Building, BBVA Provincial Tower and The Twin Towers of El Recreo Shopping Mall in Sabana Grande district.[17] Most of these buildings are located in the center of the city. Unfortunately, Business Center Confinanzas was not completed. If so, it would be the third tallest skyscraper of Caracas.[10]

According to some sources, Caracas has the second highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.[18] Others have argued that the number of homicides in Venezuela has been inflated.[19][20][21][22] Most murders and other violent crimes apparently go unsolved.[23]

History

Conqueror Diego de Losada, founder of Santiago de León de Caracas (painted early 20th century )

At the time of the founding of the city in 1567,[24] the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the region led by Terepaima and Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas. The foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel (1576–1583).

During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was frequently raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was relatively immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation.[25][26]

As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela.

José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was ultimately the site of the signing of a Declaration of Independence on 5 July 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas. The independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.[27]

Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s. The Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio, also designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, Chuao, and El Cafetal. The dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being primarily agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, and made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho (slum) belt of the valley of Caracas.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Caracas
Alemannisch: Caracas
አማርኛ: ካራካስ
Аҧсшәа: Каракас
العربية: كاراكاس
aragonés: Caracas
armãneashti: Caracas
asturianu: Caraques
Avañe'ẽ: Caracas
Aymar aru: Caracas
azərbaycanca: Karakas
বাংলা: কারাকাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Caracas
беларуская: Каракас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Каракас
Bikol Central: Caracas
Bislama: Caracas
български: Каракас
བོད་ཡིག: ཁ་ར་ཁ་སི
bosanski: Caracas
brezhoneg: Caracas
català: Caracas
Cebuano: Caracas
čeština: Caracas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ciudad de Caracas
chiShona: Caracas
corsu: Caracas
Cymraeg: Caracas
dansk: Caracas
Deutsch: Caracas
eesti: Caracas
Ελληνικά: Καράκας
español: Caracas
Esperanto: Karakaso
euskara: Caracas
فارسی: کاراکاس
Fiji Hindi: Caracas
français: Caracas
Frysk: Karakas
Gaeilge: Caracas
Gàidhlig: Caracas
galego: Caracas
ગુજરાતી: કારાકાસ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Caracas
한국어: 카라카스
Hausa: Karakas
հայերեն: Կարակաս
हिन्दी: काराकास
hornjoserbsce: Caracas
hrvatski: Caracas
Ido: Caracas
Ilokano: Caracas
Bahasa Indonesia: Caracas
interlingua: Caracas
Interlingue: Caracas
Ирон: Каракас
íslenska: Karakas
italiano: Caracas
עברית: קראקס
Basa Jawa: Caracas
kalaallisut: Caracas
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕರಾಕಸ್
ქართული: კარაკასი
Kinyarwanda: Caracas
Kirundi: Caracas
Kiswahili: Caracas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Karakas
kurdî: Caracas
Кыргызча: Каракас
Ladino: Caracas
لۊری شومالی: کاراکاس
Latina: Caracae
latviešu: Karakasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Caracas
lietuvių: Karakasas
Ligure: Caracas
Livvinkarjala: Karakas
lumbaart: Caracas
magyar: Caracas
македонски: Каракас
മലയാളം: കാരക്കാസ്
मराठी: काराकास
Bahasa Melayu: Caracas
Baso Minangkabau: Caracas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Caracas
Mirandés: Caracas
монгол: Каракас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကရာကက်စ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Caracas
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Caracas
Nederlands: Caracas
नेपाली: काराकस
日本語: カラカス
нохчийн: Каракас
norsk: Caracas
norsk nynorsk: Caracas
Novial: Karakas
occitan: Caracas
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କାରାକାସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Karakas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਰਾਕਾਸ
Pangasinan: Caracas
پنجابی: کراکس
Papiamentu: Caracas
Piemontèis: Caracas
polski: Caracas
português: Caracas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Karakas
reo tahiti: Caracas
română: Caracas
Romani: Caracas
rumantsch: Caracas
Runa Simi: Karakas
русский: Каракас
Sängö: Caracas
sardu: Caracas
Scots: Caracas
Seeltersk: Caracas
shqip: Karakas
sicilianu: Caracas
Simple English: Caracas
slovenčina: Caracas
slovenščina: Caracas
ślůnski: Caracas
српски / srpski: Каракас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Caracas
suomi: Caracas
svenska: Caracas
Tagalog: Caracas
தமிழ்: கரகஸ்
Taqbaylit: Caracas
татарча/tatarça: Каракас
tetun: Karakas
Tsetsêhestâhese: Caracas
Türkçe: Caracas
українська: Каракас
اردو: کاراکاس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Karakas
Vahcuengh: Caracas
vèneto: Caracas
vepsän kel’: Karakas
Tiếng Việt: Caracas
Volapük: Caracas
Winaray: Caracas
Wolof: Caracas
吴语: 加拉加斯
ייִדיש: קאראקאס
Yorùbá: Caracas
粵語: 卡拉卡斯
Zazaki: Karakas
中文: 卡拉卡斯
Lingua Franca Nova: Caracas