Cancer Synonyms Malignant , malignant tumor neoplasm A coronal showing a malignant CT scan mesothelioma Legend: → ←, ✱ central tumor , 1 & 3 pleural effusion , 2 lungs , 4 spine , 5 ribs , 6 aorta , 7 & 8 spleen , 9 kidneys liver Pronunciation Specialty Oncology Symptoms Lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained , change in weight loss bowel movements  Risk factors Tobacco, , poor obesity , diet , excessive lack of physical activity , certain infections alcohol   Treatment , surgery, Radiation therapy , and chemotherapy . targeted therapy   Prognosis Average 66% (USA) five year survival  Frequency 90.5 million (2015)  Deaths 8.8 million (2015)  Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. cell growth  These contrast with  , which do not spread. benign tumors Possible  include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained signs and symptoms and a change in weight loss . bowel movements While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes.  Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.   is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Tobacco use Another 10% are due to  , poor obesity , diet or lack of physical activity of excessive drinking . alcohol   Other factors include certain infections, exposure to  and environmental pollutants. ionizing radiation In the  , 15% of cancers are due to infections such as developing world , Helicobacter pylori , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , human papillomavirus infection and Epstein–Barr virus (HIV). human immunodeficiency virus These factors act, at least partly, by changing the  of a cell. genes Typically, many genetic changes are required before cancer develops.  Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents.  Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or  . screening tests It is then typically further investigated by  and confirmed by medical imaging . biopsy 
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much
, eating plenty of alcohol , vegetables and fruits , whole grains against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much vaccination and processed and avoiding too much red meat exposure. sunlight  Early detection through  is useful for screening and cervical . colorectal cancer The benefits of screening in  are controversial. breast cancer  Cancer is often treated with some combination of  , surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy . targeted therapy  Pain and symptom management are an important part of care.   is particularly important in people with advanced disease. Palliative care The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and  at the start of treatment. extent of disease In children under 15 at diagnosis, the  in the five-year survival rate is on average 80%. developed world For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%.  
In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer.
About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including  ). skin cancer other than melanoma It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of  ). deaths The most common types of cancer in males are  , lung cancer , prostate cancer and colorectal cancer . stomach cancer In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer.  If  other than skin cancer were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases. melanoma  In children,  and acute lymphoblastic leukemia are most common, except in Africa where brain tumors occurs more often. non-Hodgkin lymphoma In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer.  The risk of cancer increases significantly with age, and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries.  Rates are increasing as  and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. more people live to an old age The financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion  per year as of 2010 . USD 
Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal
with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. cell growth  They form a subset of  . A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. neoplasms 
All tumor cells show the
. These characteristics are required to produce a malignant tumor. They include: six hallmarks of cancer
The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression.
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: