Campione d'Italia

Campione d'Italia
Comune
Comune di Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Flag of Campione d'Italia
Flag
Coat of arms of Campione d'Italia
Coat of arms
Campione d'Italia is located in Italy
Campione d'Italia
Campione d'Italia
Location of Campione d'Italia in Italy
Coordinates: 45°58′N 08°58′E / 45°58′N 08°58′E / 45.967; 8.967
Country Italy
Region Lombardy
Province / Metropolitan city Province of Como
Founded 77 BC
Government
 • Mayor Roberto Salmoiraghi
Area
 • Total 1.6 km2 (0.6 sq mi)
Elevation 273 m (896 ft)
Population (28 February 2014) [1]
 • Total 2,067
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Campionese(i)
Time zone CET ( UTC+1)
 • Summer ( DST) CEST ( UTC+2)
Postal code I-22060 CH-6911
Dialing code +41 91
(as a Swiss dialing code)
Patron saint St. Zeno
Saint day 12 April
Website Official website

Campione d'Italia is a comune (municipality) of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino. At its closest the enclave is less than one kilometre (0.6 mi) from the rest of Italy, but the intervening mountainous terrain requires a journey by road of over 14 km (9 mi) to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi, and over 28 km (17 mi) to reach the city of Como.

History

Map showing the location of the Campione enclave near the centre.

In the first century BC the Romans founded the garrison town of Campilonum to protect their territories from Helvetii invasions. [2]

In 777, Toto of Campione, a local Lombard lord, left his inheritance to the archbishopric of Milan. Ownership was transferred to the abbey of Sant’Ambrogio. In 1512, the surrounding area of Ticino was transferred from the ownership of the bishop of Como to Switzerland by Pope Julius II, as thanks for support in the War of the Holy League. However, the abbey maintained control over what is now Campione d'Italia and some territory on the western bank of Lake Lugano. [2]

When Ticino chose to become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1798, the people of Campione chose to remain part of Lombardy.[ citation needed] In 1800, Ticino proposed exchanging Indemini for Campione. In 1814 a referendum was held, and the residents of Campione opposed it. In 1848, during the wars of Italian unification, Campione petitioned Switzerland for annexation. This was rejected due to the Swiss desire for neutrality. [2]

After Italian unification in 1861, all land west of Lake Lugano and half of the lake were given to Switzerland so that Swiss trade and transport would not have to pass through Italy. The d'Italia was added to the name of Campione in the 1930s by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and an ornamental gate to the city was built. This was to assert the exclave's Italian-ness. [2]

During World War II, the US Office of Strategic Services (OSS – the precursor to the CIA) — partly through Berne OSS chief Allen Welsh Dulles — maintained a unit in Campione for operations in Italy. [3] At the time the Italian fascist regime did not have control over the exclave. The Swiss ignored the situation as long as the Americans kept a low profile. Postage stamps were issued during this period inscribed "Campione d'Italia" and valued in Swiss currency. [4]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Камп’ёнэ-д’Італія
Latina: Campillionum
lumbaart: Campion (CO)
Bahasa Melayu: Campione d'Italia
Nederlands: Campione d'Italia
Napulitano: Campione d'Italia
occitan: Campione
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Campione d'Italia
Piemontèis: Campione d'Italia
português: Campione d'Italia
slovenčina: Campione d’Italia
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Campione, Como
українська: Кампьоне-д'Італія
Tiếng Việt: Campione d'Italia