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"Calque" itself is a
Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the borrowing language or when the calque contains less obvious imagery.
Calquing is distinct from
One system classifies calques into five groups:
That terminology is not universal. Some authors call a morphological calque a "morpheme-by-morpheme translation".
Other linguists refer to the phonological calque, where the pronunciation of a word is imitated in the other language. For example, the English word "radar" becomes the similar-sounding Chinese word "雷达" (pinyin "léi dá").