Callao

Callao
Mozaico Callao
Mozaico Callao
Flag of Callao
Flag
Coat of arms of Callao
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Pearl from the Pacífic,[1]
El Primer Puerto (The First Harbor).
Callao is located in Peru
Callao
Callao
Location within Peru
Coordinates: 12°2′S 77°8′W / 12°2′S 77°8′W / -12.033; -77.133
Country Peru
RegionCallao
Provinces

Constitutional Province

of Callao
Founded1537
Districts
Government
 • MayorFélix Moreno
Area[2]
 • Total147.85 km2 (57.09 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (16 ft)
Population (2015)[3]
 • Total1,013,935
 • Demonymchalaco/a
Time zonePET (UTC-5)
Websitewww.municallao.gob.pe

El Callao (/; [kaˈʎa.o, -ˈʝa-]) is a city in Peru. Located on the Pacific Ocean, it is the country's chief seaport and home to its main airport, Jorge Chávez International Airport. Callao municipality consists of the whole Callao Region, which is also coterminous with the Provincia Constitucional del Callao. Founded in 1537 by the Spanish, the city has a long naval history as one of the main ports in Latin America on the Pacific Ocean, and was one of the most important Spanish towns during the colonial era. Callao is within the Lima Metropolitan Area, with the Historic Centre of Callao located 15 km (9.3 mi) west of the Historic Centre of Lima - the city borders Lima Province on the north, east, and south, and is part of Lima's conurbation.

History

Callao Harbor (1744).
Historic map (1888).

El Callao was founded by Spanish colonists in 1537, just two years after Lima (1535). It soon became the main port for Spanish commerce in the Pacific. The origin of its name is unknown; both Indian (particularly Yunga, or Coastal Peruvian) and Spanish sources are credited, but it is certain that it was known by that name since 1550. Other sources point to the similarity with the Portuguese word calhau [pebble], having a similar sound.

At the height of the Viceroyalty, virtually all goods produced in Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina were carried over the Andes by mule to Callao, to be shipped to Panama, carried overland, and then transported on to Spain via Cuba.

After the Battle of Ayacucho, 9 December 1824, that sealed the independence of Peru and South America, Spain made futile attempts to retain its former colonies, such as at the Siege of Callao (1826). On 20 August 1836, during the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, President Andrés de Santa Cruz mandated the creation of the Callao Littoral Province (Provincia Litoral del Callao), which had political autonomy in its internal affairs. During the government of President Ramón Castilla, Callao was given the name of Constitutional Province (Provincia Constitucional), on 22 April 1857; before that, Callao had the name of Littoral Province. All of the other Peruvian provinces had been given their names by law, while Callao was given it by constitutional mandate.

Callao was never part of the Lima Department nor of any other departments.

The province's first mayor was Col. Manuel Cipriano Dulanto.

By 1949, Callao was known as one of the biggest centers of coca-based products and cocaine traffic in the world.[4]

Notable events

Other Languages
العربية: كاياو
Avañe'ẽ: Callao
Aymar aru: Kallao
বাংলা: কালাও
Bân-lâm-gú: Callao Khu
беларуская: Кальяа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кальяо (горад)
български: Каляо
català: Callao
čeština: Callao
dansk: Callao
Deutsch: Callao
eesti: Callao
español: Callao
Esperanto: Kajao
euskara: Callao
français: Callao
Gàidhlig: El Callao
한국어: 카야오
Հայերեն: Կալյաո
Ido: Callao
Bahasa Indonesia: Callao
Interlingue: Callao
italiano: Callao
ქართული: კალიაო
Кыргызча: Кальяо
Latina: Callaum
lietuvių: Kaljao
magyar: Callao
македонски: Каљао
Nederlands: Callao (stad)
日本語: カヤオ
norsk: Callao
norsk nynorsk: Callao
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kalyao
پنجابی: کلاؤ
Plattdüütsch: Callao
polski: Callao
português: El Callao
română: Callao
Runa Simi: Kallaw
русский: Кальяо
Scots: Callao
Simple English: Callao
српски / srpski: Каљао
suomi: Callao
svenska: Callao
Türkçe: Callao
українська: Каяо
اردو: کایاو
Tiếng Việt: Callao
Volapük: El Callao
Winaray: Callao
中文: 卡亞俄