California

  • california
    state
    state of california
    flag of california
    flag
    official seal of california
    seal
    nickname(s): 
    the golden state
    motto(s): 
    "eureka"[1]
    anthem: "i love you, california"
    map of the united states with california highlighted
    map of the united states with california highlighted
    countryunited states
    before statehoodcalifornia republic
    admitted to the unionseptember 9, 1850 (31st)
    capitalsacramento
    largest citylos angeles
    largest metrogreater los angeles
    government
     • governorgavin newsom (d)
     • lieutenant governoreleni kounalakis (d)
    legislaturestate legislature
     • upper housestate senate
     • lower housestate assembly
    u.s. senatorsdianne feinstein (d)
    kamala harris (d)
    u.s. house delegation46 democrats
    7 republicans (list)
    area
     • total163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2)
     • land155,959 sq mi (403,932 km2)
     • water7,737 sq mi (20,047 km2)  4.7%
    area rank3rd
    dimensions
     • length770 mi (1,240 km)
     • width250 mi (400 km)
    elevation
    2,900 ft (880 m)
    highest elevation
    (mount whitney[2][3][4][5])
    14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)
    lowest elevation
    (badwater basin[6])
    −279 ft (−85.0 m)
    population
     (2019)
     • total39,512,223[7][8]
     • rank1st
     • density253.6/sq mi (97.9/km2)
     • density rank11th
     • median household income
    $71,228 (2,018)[9]
     • income rank
    9th
    demonym(s)californian
    language
     • official languageenglish
     • spoken languagelanguage spoken at home[10]
    • english: 58.1%
    • spanish: 28.8%
    • chinese: 3.0%
    • filipino: 2.2%
    • other: 7.9%
    time zoneutc-08:00 (pst)
     • summer (dst)utc-07:00 (pdt)
    usps abbreviation
    ca
    iso 3166 codeus-ca
    www.ca.gov
    california state symbols
    flag of california.svg
    the flag of california
    seal of california.svg
    the seal of california
    living insignia
    amphibiancalifornia red-legged frog
    birdcalifornia quail
    fish
    • fresh water: golden trout
    • marine: garibaldi
    flowercalifornia poppy
    grasspurple needlegrass
    insectcalifornia dogface butterfly
    mammal
    • land: california grizzly bear (state animal)[1]
    • marine: gray whale
    reptiledesert tortoise
    treecoast redwood & giant sequoia[11]
    inanimate insignia
    colorsblue & gold[12]
    dancewest coast swing
    folk dancesquare dance
    fossilsabre-toothed cat
    gemstonebenitoite
    mineralnative gold
    rockserpentine
    soilsan joaquin
    sportsurfing
    tartancalifornia state tartan
    state route marker
    california state route marker
    state quarter
    california quarter dollar coin
    released in 2005
    lists of united states state symbols

    california is a state in the pacific region of the united states. with 39.5 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), california is the most populous u.s. state and the third-largest by area. the state capital is sacramento. the greater los angeles area and the san francisco bay area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively.[13] los angeles is california's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after new york city. california also has the nation's most populous county, los angeles county, and its largest county by area, san bernardino county. the city and county of san francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after new york city and the fifth most densely populated county, behind only four of the five new york city boroughs.

    california's economy, with a gross state product of $3.0 trillion, is the largest sub-national economy in the world.[14] if it were a country, california would be the fifth-largest economy in the world (larger than the united kingdom, france, or india),[15] and the 36th-most populous as of 2017.[16] the greater los angeles area and the san francisco bay area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.3 trillion and $1.0 trillion respectively as of 2018), after the new york metropolitan area.[17] the san francisco bay area psa had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas,[17] and is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization[18] and three of the world's ten richest people.[19]

    california culture is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, politics, and entertainment. as a result of the state's diversity and migration, california integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe. it is considered the origin of the american film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, beach and car culture, the internet,[20] and the personal computer,[21] among others.[22][23] the san francisco bay area and the greater los angeles area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. california's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services.[24] although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy,[24] california's agriculture industry has the highest output of any u.s. state.[25][self-published source][26][27][28]

    california shares a border with oregon to the north, nevada and arizona to the east, and the mexican state of baja california to the south. the state's diverse geography ranges from the pacific coast in the west to the sierra nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and douglas fir forests in the northwest to the mojave desert in the southeast. the central valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. although california is well-known for its warm mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. over time, drought and wildfires have become more frequent challenges.[29][30]

    what is now california was first settled by various native californian tribes before being explored by a number of european expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries. the spanish empire then claimed and conquered it. in 1804 it was included in alta california province, within spanish new spain viceroyalty. the area became a part of mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the united states in 1848 after the mexican–american war. the western portion of alta california was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on september 9, 1850. the california gold rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • demographics
  • culture
  • economy
  • infrastructure
  • government and politics
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

California
State of California
Nickname(s): 
The Golden State
Motto(s): 
Anthem: "I Love You, California"
Map of the United States with California highlighted
Map of the United States with California highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodCalifornia Republic
Admitted to the UnionSeptember 9, 1850 (31st)
CapitalSacramento
Largest cityLos Angeles
Largest metroGreater Los Angeles
Government
 • GovernorGavin Newsom (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorEleni Kounalakis (D)
LegislatureState Legislature
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseState Assembly
U.S. senatorsDianne Feinstein (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
U.S. House delegation46 Democrats
7 Republicans (list)
Area
 • Total163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2)
 • Land155,959 sq mi (403,932 km2)
 • Water7,737 sq mi (20,047 km2)  4.7%
Area rank3rd
Dimensions
 • Length770 mi (1,240 km)
 • Width250 mi (400 km)
Elevation
2,900 ft (880 m)
Highest elevation14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)
Lowest elevation−279 ft (−85.0 m)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total39,512,223[7][8]
 • Rank1st
 • Density253.6/sq mi (97.9/km2)
 • Density rank11th
 • Median household income
$71,228 (2,018)[9]
 • Income rank
9th
Demonym(s)Californian
Language
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageLanguage spoken at home[10]
Time zoneUTC-08:00 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-07:00 (PDT)
USPS abbreviation
CA
ISO 3166 codeUS-CA
www.ca.gov
California state symbols
Flag of California.svg
Seal of California.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianCalifornia red-legged frog
BirdCalifornia quail
Fish
FlowerCalifornia poppy
GrassPurple needlegrass
InsectCalifornia dogface butterfly
Mammal
ReptileDesert tortoise
TreeCoast redwood & giant sequoia[11]
Inanimate insignia
ColorsBlue & gold[12]
DanceWest Coast Swing
Folk danceSquare dance
FossilSabre-toothed cat
GemstoneBenitoite
MineralNative gold
RockSerpentine
SoilSan Joaquin
SportSurfing
TartanCalifornia State Tartan
State route marker
California state route marker
State quarter
California quarter dollar coin
Released in 2005
Lists of United States state symbols

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.5 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively.[13] Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.

California's economy, with a gross state product of $3.0 trillion, is the largest sub-national economy in the world.[14] If it were a country, California would be the fifth-largest economy in the world (larger than the United Kingdom, France, or India),[15] and the 36th-most populous as of 2017.[16] The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.3 trillion and $1.0 trillion respectively as of 2018), after the New York metropolitan area.[17] The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas,[17] and is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization[18] and three of the world's ten richest people.[19]

California culture is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, politics, and entertainment. As a result of the state's diversity and migration, California integrates foods, languages, and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe. It is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, beach and car culture, the Internet,[20] and the personal computer,[21] among others.[22][23] The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services.[24] Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy,[24] California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.[25][self-published source][26][27][28]

California shares a border with Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time, drought and wildfires have become more frequent challenges.[29][30]

What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire then claimed and conquered it. In 1804 it was included in Alta California province, within Spanish New Spain Viceroyalty. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kalifornië
Alemannisch: Kalifornien
አማርኛ: ካሊፎርኒያ
Ænglisc: California
العربية: كاليفورنيا
aragonés: California
arpetan: California
asturianu: California
Avañe'ẽ: California
Aymar aru: California suyu
azərbaycanca: Kaliforniya
Bân-lâm-gú: California
башҡортса: Калифорния
беларуская: Каліфорнія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Каліфорнія
Bikol Central: California
Bislama: Kalifornia
български: Калифорния
Boarisch: Kalifornien
bosanski: Kalifornija
brezhoneg: Kalifornia
буряад: Калифорни
català: Califòrnia
Чӑвашла: Калифорни
Cebuano: California
čeština: Kalifornie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: California
corsu: California
Cymraeg: Califfornia
davvisámegiella: Kalifornia
Deitsch: Kalifornie
Deutsch: Kalifornien
dolnoserbski: Kaliforniska
eesti: California
Ελληνικά: Καλιφόρνια
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Califòrgna
español: California
Esperanto: Kalifornio
euskara: Kalifornia
فارسی: کالیفرنیا
Fiji Hindi: California
føroyskt: Kalifornia
français: Californie
Frysk: Kalifornje
Gaeilge: California
Gaelg: California
Gagauz: Kaliforniya
Gàidhlig: Calafòrnia
galego: California
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: California
хальмг: Калифорния
Hausa: California
Hawaiʻi: Kaleponi
հայերեն: Կալիֆոռնիա
hornjoserbsce: Kaliforniska
hrvatski: Kalifornija
Ilokano: California
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ক্যালিফোর্নিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: California
interlingua: California
Interlingue: California
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑳᓖᐴᕐᓃᐊ
Iñupiak: California
isiXhosa: IKhalifoniya
isiZulu: California
íslenska: Kalifornía
italiano: California
עברית: קליפורניה
Kabɩyɛ: Kalɩfɔrnii
Kapampangan: California
къарачай-малкъар: Калифорния
ქართული: კალიფორნია
қазақша: Калифорния
kernowek: Kaliforni
Kiswahili: California
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kalifòni
kurdî: Kalîforniya
Кыргызча: Калифорния
кырык мары: Калифорни
Ladino: Kalifornia
لۊری شومالی: کاليفورنيا
Latina: California
latviešu: Kalifornija
Lëtzebuergesch: Kalifornien
lietuvių: Kalifornija
Ligure: California
Limburgs: Californië
Lingua Franca Nova: California
la .lojban.: la .kaliforniias.
lumbaart: California
magyar: Kalifornia
македонски: Калифорнија
Malagasy: Kalifornia
മലയാളം: കാലിഫോർണിയ
Māori: Karapōnia
მარგალური: კალიფორნია
مازِرونی: کالیفرنیا
Bahasa Melayu: California
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: California
монгол: Калифорни
Nāhuatl: California
Dorerin Naoero: California
Nederlands: Californië
Nedersaksies: Kalifornië
नेपाल भाषा: क्यालिफोर्निया
нохчийн: Калифорни
Nordfriisk: California
norsk: California
norsk nynorsk: California
occitan: Califòrnia
олык марий: Калифорний
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kaliforniya
Pälzisch: Kalifornien
Pangasinan: California
پنجابی: کیلیفورنیا
Papiamentu: California
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កាលីហ្វញ៉ា
Picard: Californie
Piemontèis: Califòrnia
Plattdüütsch: Kalifornien
polski: Kalifornia
português: Califórnia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kaliforniya shtati
română: California
rumantsch: California
Runa Simi: California suyu
русский: Калифорния
саха тыла: Калифорния
Gagana Samoa: Kalefonia
संस्कृतम्: कालिफ़ोर्निया
Scots: Californie
Seeltersk: Kalifornien
shqip: Kalifornia
sicilianu: California
Simple English: California
slovenčina: Kalifornia
slovenščina: Kalifornija
ślůnski: Kaliforńijo
Soomaaliga: Kalifornia
српски / srpski: Калифорнија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kalifornija
Sunda: Kalifornia
suomi: Kalifornia
svenska: Kalifornien
Tagalog: California
Taqbaylit: Kalifurnya
татарча/tatarça: Калифорния (штат)
tetun: California
тоҷикӣ: Калифорния
Tsetsêhestâhese: California
Türkçe: Kaliforniya
українська: Каліфорнія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kaliforniye Shitati
vèneto: Całifornia
Tiếng Việt: California
Volapük: Kalifornän
Winaray: California
ייִדיש: קאליפארניע
Zazaki: Kaliforniya
Zeêuws: California
žemaitėška: Kalėfuornėjė