There are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the
Eastern Rites (plus the
Gallican Rite in the West) developed: the
Alexandrian Rite in Egypt and the
Antiochene Rite in Syria. These two Rites developed directly from practices of the
Early Church. Of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior to the
Constantinople's elevation to the dignity of
patriarch by the
Second Ecumenical Council in 381, the primary jurisdiction in Asia Minor was the
Patriarchate of Antioch. With the council's elevation of Constantinople to primacy in the East, with the words "The Bishop of Constantinople ... shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome; because Constantinople is New Rome",
 the Constantinopolitan Rite gradually came to be the standard usage in every place under its jurisdiction.
Because the Rite of Constantinople evolved as a synthesis of two distinct rites — cathedral rite of Constantinople called the "asmatiki akolouthia" ("sung services") and the monastic typicon of the
Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified near
Jerusalem — its offices are highly developed and quite complex.
Further developments continued to occur, centered mostly around Constantinople and
Mount Athos. Monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the
monastery of the
Studion greatly enriched the liturgical traditions, especially with regard to the
Iconography continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day.
Historical events have also influenced the development of the liturgy. The great
Trinitarian controversies of
Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity heard in the numerous
ekphonies encountered during the services. In response to
Nestorius' attack on giving the title of
Theotokos to the
Virgin Mary, the Byzantines increased the use of the term in the liturgy, and now almost every string of hymns ends with one in her honour, called a
All liturgical rites change and develop over time. As new
canonized, new hymns are composed; as new needs arise, new prayers are written. The rite also profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in
ecclesiastical polity as the West. This allows for greater diversity, and as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its great emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite comprises a constantly growing and expanding ritual, with room for local practice.
The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the oldest of its two main Divine Liturgies to St.
Basil the Great (d. 379),
Cæsarea in Cappadocia. This tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries.
 It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, and that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time.
 St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea.
 and other contemporary witnesses attest his arrangement of the services. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful. He also worked to reform the clergy and improve the moral life of Christians. He shortened the services and wrote a number of new prayers. The most important work attributed to him is the
Divine Liturgy of St. Basil. He took as his basis the
Liturgy of St. James as it was celebrated at his time in the region of Cappadocia, as well as some liturgical elements recorded in the
Over time, the Liturgy of Saint Basil gained wide usage in Asia Minor and
Peter the Deacon mentions that Basil's Liturgy was "used by nearly the whole East".
 However, the Alexandrian rite uses another Liturgy which is also attributed to Saint Basil,
 so Peter the Deacon's reference may not be to the Liturgy of St. Basil used in the Byzantine Rite.
Saint Basil's liturgical work was continued by
John Chrysostom (died c. 407),
Patriarch of Constantinople. He wrote new (and shorter) prayers for the Divine Liturgy, as well as other prayers. The
Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is the most common form of the liturgy used in the rite today.