Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων
Basileía Rhōmaíōna
Imperium Romanum
395–1453b
Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great
(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
The Empire at its greatest extent in AD 555 under
Justinian the Great (its vassals in pink)
CapitalConstantinoplec
(330–1204, 1261–1453)
Languages
  • Latin (official until 610)
  • Greek (official after 610)
ReligionChristianity (Eastern Orthodox)
(tolerated after the Edict of Milan in 313; state religion after 380)
GovernmentRepublican monarchy[1]
 • 395–408Arcadius
 • 527–565Justinian I
 • 610–641Heraclius
 • 717–741Leo III
 • 976–1025Basil II
 • 1081–1118Alexios I Komnenos
 • 1259–1282Michael VIII Palaiologos
 • 1449–1453Constantine XI
Historical eraLate Antiquity to Late Middle Ages
 • First division of the Roman Empire284
 • Founding of Constantinople330
 • Final East-West division after the death of Theodosius I395
 • Nominal end of the Western Roman Empire476
 • Fourth Crusade; establishment of Latin Empire1204
 • Reconquest of Constantinople by Palaiologos1261
 • Fall of Constantinople29 May 1453
 • Fall of Trebizond15 August 1461
Population
 • 457 AD est.16,000,000d 
 • 565 AD est.19,000,000 
 • 775 AD est.7,000,000 
 • 1025 AD est.12,000,000 
 • 1320 AD est.2,000,000 
CurrencySolidus, histamenon and hyperpyron
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Dio coin3.jpgRoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
a.^ Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων may be transliterated in Latin as Basileia Rhōmaiōn, meaning Roman Empire.
b.^ Theodosius I was the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. He died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire.
c.^ Between 1204 and 1261 there was an interregnum when the Empire was divided into the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus, which were all contenders for rule of the Empire. The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Byzantine Empire because they managed to re-take Constantinople.
d.^ See Population of the Byzantine Empire for more detailed figures taken provided by McEvedy and Jones, Atlas of World Population History, 1978, as well as Angeliki E. Laiou, The Economic History of Byzantium, 2002.
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Byzantine Empire
Territorial development of the Byzantine Empire (330–1453)
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Byzantine imperial flag, 14th century, square.svg Byzantine Empire portal

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum),[3] or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans."[4]

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5] Thus, although the Roman state continued and Roman state traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Orthodox Christianity.[4]

The borders of the empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527–565), the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries. During the reign of Maurice (r. 582–602), the Empire's eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised. However, his assassination caused the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, which exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the seventh century. In a matter of years the empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs.[6] During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire again expanded and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

The empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.[7] However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 14th and 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire.[8] The last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years later in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond.[9]

Nomenclature

The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the later years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae), and in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu.[10] However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world.[11]

The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans" (Latin: Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn, Ἀρχὴ τῶν Ῥωμαίων Archē tōn Rhōmaiōn), "Romania" (Latin: Romania; Greek: Ῥωμανία Rhōmania),[n 1] the "Roman Republic" (Latin: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Πολιτεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Politeia tōn Rhōmaiōn), "Graecia" (Greek: Γραικία),[14] and also as "Rhōmais" (Greek: Ῥωμαΐς).[15] The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi,[16] and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.

Although the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history[17] and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions,[18] it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its increasingly predominant Greek element.[19] The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" (Latin: Imperium Graecorum) in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum (Emperor of the Greeks)[20] were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.[21] Due to the heartland of the Byzantine empire being in Greek-speaking areas, Greek was the official language.[22] However, it would be wrong to see the empire solely as a Greek empire: other languages, such as Armenian and various Slavic languages, were also widely spoken.[22]

The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. Needing Charlemagne's support in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the lack of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the time to claim that it was vacant and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself.[23]

No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm.[24] The name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire, that is, the Orthodox Christian community within Ottoman realms.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bisantynse Ryk
azərbaycanca: Bizans İmperiyası
Bân-lâm-gú: Tang Lô-má Tè-kok
беларуская: Візантыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бізантыйская імпэрыя
Чӑвашла: Висанти
eesti: Bütsants
Esperanto: Bizanca imperio
Fiji Hindi: Byzantine Samrajya
français: Empire byzantin
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tûng Lò-mâ Ti-koet
hrvatski: Bizant
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekaisaran Romawi Timur
interlingua: Imperio Byzantin
Кыргызча: Византия
لۊری شومالی: بیزانس
lietuvių: Bizantija
Limburgs: Byzantijns Riek
lumbaart: Impero Bizantin
македонски: Византија
Malti: Biżantini
მარგალური: ბიზანტია
مازِرونی: بیزانس
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Byzantine
Nederlands: Byzantijnse Rijk
Nedersaksies: Byzantiense Riek
Napulitano: Impero Bizantino
Nordfriisk: Uaströömsk Rik
norsk nynorsk: Austromarriket
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vizantiya imperiyasi
Plattdüütsch: Byzantiensch Riek
Ποντιακά: Ρωμανίαν
português: Império Bizantino
qırımtatarca: Bizans İmperiyası
rumantsch: Imperi bizantin
русиньскый: Візантьска ріша
русский: Византия
Simple English: Byzantine Empire
slovenčina: Byzantská ríša
slovenščina: Bizantinsko cesarstvo
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bizantsko Carstvo
tarandíne: 'Mbere Bizzandine
татарча/tatarça: Византия империясе
тоҷикӣ: Византия
Võro: Bütsants
West-Vlams: Byzantyns Ryk
žemaitėška: Bizantėjė
Lingua Franca Nova: Impero Bizantian