Bulgaria

Republic of Bulgaria

Република България  (Bulgarian)
Republika Bǎlgariya
Motto: 
Anthem: 
Мила Родино  (Bulgarian)
Mila Rodino  (transliteration)
Dear Motherland
Location of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Bulgaria  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Sofia
42°41′N 23°19′E / 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683; 23.317
Official languagesBulgarian
Official scriptCyrillic
Ethnic groups
(2011)
84.8% Bulgarians, 8.8% Turks, 4.9% Romani, 0.7% others[note 1]
Demonym(s)Bulgarian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
republic
• President
Rumen Radev
Boyko Borisov
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
681–1018
1185–1396
3 March 1878[note 2]
• Declaration of Independence from the Ottoman Empire
5 October 1908[note 3]
Area
• Total
110,993.6[1] km2 (42,854.9 sq mi) (103rd)
• Water (%)
2.16[2]
Population
• 31 December 2017 estimate
Decrease 7,050,034[3] (103rd)
• Density
64/km2 (165.8/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$163 billion[4] (76th)
• Per capita
$23,207[4] (62nd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$64 billion[4] (81st)
• Per capita
$9,080[4] (75th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 40.2[5]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.813[6]
very high · 51st
CurrencyLev (BGN)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+359
ISO 3166 codeBG
Internet TLD.bg

Bulgaria (l-/ (About this soundlisten); Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya, IPA: [rɛˈpublikɐ bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians, Celts and ancient Macedonians; stability came when the Roman Empire conquered the region in AD 45. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and significantly influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script. This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.

Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. The population of seven million lives mainly in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, and the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.

Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat on the UN Security Council three times. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and mostly relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue.

Etymology

The name Bulgaria is derived from the Bulgars, a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not completely understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD,[7] but it is possibly derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha ("to mix", "shake", "stir") and its derivative bulgak ("revolt", "disorder").[8] The meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers".[9][10][11] Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were frequently described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers".[12]

Other Languages
Acèh: Bulgaria
Адыгэбзэ: Болгариэ
адыгабзэ: Булгарие
Afrikaans: Bulgarye
Akan: Bulgaria
Alemannisch: Bulgarien
አማርኛ: ቡልጋሪያ
Ænglisc: Pulgaraland
Аҧсшәа: Болгариа
العربية: بلغاريا
aragonés: Bulgaria
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܘܠܓܐܪܝܐ
armãneashti: Vurgaria
arpetan: Bulgarie
asturianu: Bulgaria
Avañe'ẽ: Vugária
авар: Булгъар
Aymar aru: Bulkariya
azərbaycanca: Bolqarıstan
Bân-lâm-gú: Bulgaria
башҡортса: Болгария
беларуская: Балгарыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Баўгарыя
भोजपुरी: बुल्गारिया
Bikol Central: Bulgarya
Bislama: Bulgaria
български: България
Boarisch: Buigarien
bosanski: Bugarska
brezhoneg: Bulgaria
буряад: Болгари
català: Bulgària
Cebuano: Bulgaria
čeština: Bulharsko
Chamoru: Bulgaria
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bulgaria
chiShona: Bulgaria
chiTumbuka: Bulgaria
corsu: Bulgaria
Cymraeg: Bwlgaria
dansk: Bulgarien
davvisámegiella: Bulgária
Deitsch: Bulgarien
Deutsch: Bulgarien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބަލްގޭރިއާ
dolnoserbski: Bulgarska
डोटेली: बुल्गेरिया
eesti: Bulgaaria
Ελληνικά: Βουλγαρία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Bulgarî
español: Bulgaria
Esperanto: Bulgario
estremeñu: Bulgária
euskara: Bulgaria
eʋegbe: Bulgaria
فارسی: بلغارستان
Fiji Hindi: Bulgaria
føroyskt: Bulgaria
français: Bulgarie
Frysk: Bulgarije
Fulfulde: Bulgariya
furlan: Bulgarie
Gaeilge: An Bhulgáir
Gaelg: Yn Vulgeyr
Gagauz: Bulgariya
Gàidhlig: Bulgàiria
galego: Bulgaria
ГӀалгӀай: Болгари
ગુજરાતી: બલ્ગેરિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌱𐌿𐌻𐌲𐌰𐍂𐌹𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बल्गेरिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bulgaria
한국어: 불가리아
Hausa: Bulgeriya
Hawaiʻi: Pulukalia
հայերեն: Բուլղարիա
हिन्दी: बुल्गारिया
hornjoserbsce: Bołharska
hrvatski: Bugarska
Igbo: Bulgaria
Ilokano: Bulgaria
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বুলগেরিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Bulgaria
interlingua: Bulgaria
Interlingue: Bulgaria
Ирон: Болгари
isiZulu: IBulgariya
íslenska: Búlgaría
italiano: Bulgaria
עברית: בולגריה
Basa Jawa: Bulgari
Kabɩyɛ: Puligari
kalaallisut: Bulgaria
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬಲ್ಗೇರಿಯ
Kapampangan: Bulgaria
къарачай-малкъар: Болгария
ქართული: ბულგარეთი
kaszëbsczi: Bùlgarskô
қазақша: Болгария
kernowek: Bulgari
Kinyarwanda: Bulugariya
Kirundi: Bulgaria
Kiswahili: Bulgaria
Kongo: Balgaria
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bilgari
kurdî: Bulgaristan
Кыргызча: Болгария
кырык мары: Болгари
Ladino: Bulgaria
лакку: Болгариа
لۊری شومالی: بولغارستان
latgaļu: Bulgareja
Latina: Bulgaria
latviešu: Bulgārija
Lëtzebuergesch: Bulgarien
лезги: Болгария
lietuvių: Bulgarija
Ligure: Bulgarîa
Limburgs: Bulgarije
lingála: Bulgaria
Lingua Franca Nova: Balgaria
Livvinkarjala: Bolguarii
la .lojban.: bylgAri,as
lumbaart: Bülgaria
magyar: Bulgária
मैथिली: बुल्गेरिया
македонски: Бугарија
Malagasy: Bolgaria
മലയാളം: ബൾഗേറിയ
Malti: Bulgarija
Māori: Purukāria
მარგალური: ბულგარეთი
مصرى: بلجاريا
مازِرونی: بلغارستون
Bahasa Melayu: Bulgaria
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bulgaria
Mirandés: Bulgária
мокшень: Болгарие
монгол: Болгар улс
Dorerin Naoero: Borgeriya
Nederlands: Bulgarije
Nedersaksies: Bulgarije
नेपाली: बुल्गेरिया
नेपाल भाषा: बुल्गेरिया
日本語: ブルガリア
Napulitano: Bulgaria
нохчийн: Болгари
Nordfriisk: Bulgaarien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bulgeriya
norsk: Bulgaria
norsk nynorsk: Bulgaria
Nouormand: Bulgarie
Novial: Bulgaria
occitan: Bulgaria
олык марий: Болгарий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବୁଲଗାରିଆ
Oromoo: Bulgeeriyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bolgariya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੁਲਗਾਰੀਆ
Pälzisch: Bulgarien
Pangasinan: Bulgariya
پنجابی: بلغاریہ
Papiamentu: Bulgaria
پښتو: بلغاریا
Patois: Bulgieria
Перем Коми: Бӧлгария
Picard: Bulgarie
Piemontèis: Bulgarìa
Tok Pisin: Balgeria
Plattdüütsch: Bulgarien
polski: Bułgaria
Ποντιακά: Βουλγαρία
português: Bulgária
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bolgariya
qırımtatarca: Bulğaristan
Ripoarisch: Bulgarije
română: Bulgaria
Romani: Bulgariya
rumantsch: Bulgaria
Runa Simi: Bulgarya
русиньскый: Болгарія
русский: Болгария
саха тыла: Болгария
Gagana Samoa: Bultalia
संस्कृतम्: बुल्गारिया
Sängö: Bulugarïi
sardu: Bulgaria
Scots: Bulgarie
Seeltersk: Bulgarien
Sesotho sa Leboa: Bulgaria
shqip: Bullgaria
sicilianu: Bulgarìa
Simple English: Bulgaria
سنڌي: بلغاريه
SiSwati: IBhulgariya
slovenčina: Bulharsko
slovenščina: Bolgarija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Блъгарїꙗ
ślůnski: Bułgaryjo
Soomaaliga: Bulgaria
کوردی: بولگاریا
Sranantongo: Bulgarikondre
српски / srpski: Бугарска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bugarska
Basa Sunda: Bulgaria
suomi: Bulgaria
svenska: Bulgarien
Tagalog: Bulgarya
Taqbaylit: Bulgarya
tarandíne: Bulgarie
татарча/tatarça: Болгария
తెలుగు: బల్గేరియా
tetun: Bulgária
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏊᎵᎨᎵᎠ
Türkçe: Bulgaristan
Türkmençe: Bolgariýa
удмурт: Болгария
українська: Болгарія
اردو: بلغاریہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بۇلغارىيە
Vahcuengh: Bulgaria
vèneto: Bulgaria
vepsän kel’: Bolgarii
Tiếng Việt: Bulgaria
Volapük: Bulgarän
Võro: Bulgaaria
walon: Bulgåreye
文言: 保加利亞
West-Vlams: Bulgareye
Winaray: Bulgaria
Wolof: Bulgaari
吴语: 保加利亚
Xitsonga: Bulgaria
ייִדיש: בולגאריע
Yorùbá: Bùlgáríà
粵語: 保加利亞
Zeêuws: Bulharije
žemaitėška: Bulgarėjė
中文: 保加利亚