Buenos Aires

Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires
Skyline of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Flag of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Flag
Coat of arms of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
The Queen of El Plata (La reina del Plata)[1][2]
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires is located in Argentina
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Location in Argentina
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires is located in South America
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (South America)
Coordinates: 34°36′12″S 58°22′54″W / 34°36′12″S 58°22′54″W / -34.60333; -58.38167

Buenos Aires (z/ or s/;[5] Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbwenos ˈaiɾes])[6] is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 14 million.[3]

The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an autonomous district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province.[7] The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores; both are now neighborhoods of the city. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; "CABA"). Its citizens first elected a chief of government (i.e. mayor) in 1996; previously, the mayor was directly appointed by the President of the Republic.

Buenos Aires is considered an 'alpha city' by the study GaWC5.[8] Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018.[9][10] It is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America (behind Mexico City).[11]

Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination,[12] and is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture[13] and rich cultural life.[14] Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics[15] and the 2018 G20 summit.[16]

Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country. This is because in the last 150 years the city, and the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered as one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.[17]

Etymology

Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.

It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari (Sardinia) under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city.[18] The hill was known to them as Bonaira (or Bonaria in Sardinian language), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the castle area), which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville.[18]

In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires.[19] Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria[20] (that is still to this day the patroness of Sardinia[21]). Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541.[19]

For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.[22]

A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century.[23]

The usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs.As.[24] It is common as well to refer to it as "B.A." or "BA".[25]

While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Буенос Айрес
адыгабзэ: Буэнос Айрес
Afrikaans: Buenos Aires
Alemannisch: Buenos Aires
Ænglisc: Buenos Aires
العربية: بوينس آيرس
aragonés: Buenos Aires
arpetan: Buenos Aires
asturianu: Buenos Aires
Avañe'ẽ: Buenos Aires
Aymar aru: Buenos Aires
azərbaycanca: Buenos-Ayres
تۆرکجه: بوئنوس آیرس
bamanankan: Buenos Aires
Bân-lâm-gú: Buenos Aires
башҡортса: Буэнос-Айрес
беларуская: Буэнас-Айрэс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Буэнас-Айрэс
Bikol Central: Buenos Aires
български: Буенос Айрес
Boarisch: Buenos Aires
bosanski: Buenos Aires
brezhoneg: Buenos Aires
català: Buenos Aires
Cebuano: Buenos Aires
čeština: Buenos Aires
Chamoru: Buenos Aires
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ciudad de Buenos Aires
Chi-Chewa: Buenos Aires
chiShona: Buenos Aires
Cymraeg: Buenos Aires
Deitsch: Buenos Aires
Deutsch: Buenos Aires
dolnoserbski: Buenos Aires
Ελληνικά: Μπουένος Άιρες
español: Buenos Aires
Esperanto: Bonaero
estremeñu: Buenos Aires
euskara: Buenos Aires
Fiji Hindi: Buenos Aires
føroyskt: Buenos Aires
français: Buenos Aires
Gaeilge: Buenos Aires
Gagauz: Buenos Aires
Gàidhlig: Buenos Aires
galego: Buenos Aires
ГӀалгӀай: Буэнос-Айрес
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Buenos Aires
Hawaiʻi: Buenos Aires
hornjoserbsce: Buenos Aires
hrvatski: Buenos Aires
Ilokano: Buenos Aires
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বুৱেনোস আইরেস
Bahasa Indonesia: Buenos Aires
interlingua: Buenos Aires
Interlingue: Buenos Aires
isiZulu: Buenos Aires
íslenska: Búenos Aíres
italiano: Buenos Aires
Basa Jawa: Buenos Aires
Kabɩyɛ: Puyenezɛrɩ
kalaallisut: Buenos Aires
қазақша: Буэнос-Айрес
kernowek: Buenos Aires
Kinyarwanda: Buenos Aires
Kirundi: Buenos Aires
Kiswahili: Buenos Aires
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bwènozè
kurdî: Buenos Aires
Кыргызча: Буэнос-Айрес
Ladino: Buenos Ayres
لۊری شومالی: بوئنس آیرس
Latina: Bonus Aër
latviešu: Buenosairesa
Lëtzebuergesch: Buenos Aires
lietuvių: Buenos Airės
Ligure: Bonesàire
Limburgs: Buenos Aires
lingála: Buenos Aires
Lingua Franca Nova: Buenos Aires
Livvinkarjala: Buenos-Aires
la .lojban.: buenosaires
lumbaart: Buenos Aires
magyar: Buenos Aires
македонски: Буенос Аирес
Malagasy: Buenos Aires
Māori: Buenos Aires
მარგალური: ბუენოს–აირესი
Bahasa Melayu: Buenos Aires
Baso Minangkabau: Buenos Aires
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Buenos Aires
Mirandés: Buonos Aires
Nāhuatl: Buenos Aires
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Buenos Aires
नेपाल भाषा: बुयनोस आयरेस
Napulitano: Buenos Aires
нохчийн: Буэнос-Айрес
norsk nynorsk: Buenos Aires
Nouormand: Bouonézâr
occitan: Buenos Aires
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Buenos Ayres
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੁਏਨਸ ਆਇਰਸ
Pangasinan: Buenos Aires
پنجابی: بیونس آئرس
Papiamentu: Buenos Aires
Patois: Buenos Aires
Picard: Buenos Aires
Piemontèis: Buenos Aires
polski: Buenos Aires
português: Buenos Aires
Qaraqalpaqsha: Buenos-Ayres
qırımtatarca: Buenos Ayres
reo tahiti: Buenos Aires
română: Buenos Aires
Romani: Buenos Aires
rumantsch: Buenos Aires
Runa Simi: Buenos Aires
русиньскый: Буенос Аірес
русский: Буэнос-Айрес
саха тыла: Буэнос Айрес
Seeltersk: Buenos Aires
Sesotho: Buenos Aires
sicilianu: Buenos Aires
Simple English: Buenos Aires
slovenčina: Buenos Aires
slovenščina: Buenos Aires
ślůnski: Buenos Aires
Soomaaliga: Buenos Aires
српски / srpski: Буенос Ајрес
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Buenos Aires
svenska: Buenos Aires
Taqbaylit: Buenos Aires
tarandíne: Buenos Aires
татарча/tatarça: Буэнос-Айрес
Tsetsêhestâhese: Buenos Aires
Türkçe: Buenos Aires
Türkmençe: Buenos-Aýres
українська: Буенос-Айрес
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Buénos Ayrés
Vahcuengh: Buenos Aires
vèneto: Buenos Aires
vepsän kel’: Buenos Aires
Tiếng Việt: Buenos Aires
Volapük: Buenos Aires
Winaray: Buenos Aires
Yorùbá: Buenos Aires
Zazaki: Buenos Aires
Zeêuws: Buenos Aires
žemaitėška: Buenas Airēs