Brown rice

Brown rice
Brownrice.jpg
Chinese name
Chinese糙米
Literal meaningrough rice
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetgạo lứt
Thai name
Thaiข้าวกล้อง
Korean name
Hangul현미
Hanja玄米
Japanese name
Kanji玄米
Filipino name
Tagalogpináwa
Nepali name
Nepaliमार्सी चामल

Brown rice is whole-grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer, and cereal germ removed. Red rice, gold rice, and black rice (also called purple rice) are all whole rices, but with differently pigmented outer layers.

African rice in its inedible husk (seed rice, will sprout)
The same rice, dehusked (whole brown rice) (colour varies by variety)
The same rice, with almost all bran and germ removed to make white rice

Any type of rice may be eaten whole. Whole rice has a mild, nutty flavour, and is chewier.

Rice, brown, long-grain, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,548 kJ (370 kcal)
77.24 g
Sugars0.85 g
Dietary fiber3.52 g
2.92 g
7.85 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
1)
35%
0.401 mg
2)
8%
0.093 mg
3)
34%
5.091 mg
5)
30%
1.493 mg
6
39%
0.509 mg
9)
5%
20 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
2%
23 mg
Iron
11%
1.47 mg
Magnesium
40%
143 mg
Manganese
178%
3.743 mg
Phosphorus
48%
333 mg
Potassium
5%
223 mg
Selenium
33%
23.4 μg
Sodium
0%
7 mg
Zinc
21%
2.02 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water10.37 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritional content

Brown rice and white rice have similar amounts of calories and carbohydrates. White rice, unlike brown rice, has the bran and germ removed; and has different nutritional content. Brown rice is a whole grain and a good source of magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, and manganese, and is high in fiber.[1]

When only the outermost layer of a grain of rice (the husk) is removed, brown rice is produced. To produce white rice, the next layers underneath the husk (the bran layer and the germ) are removed, leaving mostly the starchy endosperm.

Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process. A part of these missing nutrients, such as vitamins B1 and B3, and iron are sometimes added back into the white rice. In the US the result is called "enriched rice", and must comply with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for this name to be used.[2]

One mineral not added back into white rice is magnesium; one cup (195 g) of cooked long grain brown rice contains 84 mg of magnesium, while one cup of white rice contains 19 mg.

When the bran layer is removed to make white rice, the oil in the bran is also removed.

Among other nutrients lost are dietary fiber and small amounts of fatty acids.

It has been found that germinated grains in general have nutritional advantages. Germinated brown rice (GBR), developed during the International Year of Rice, is brown rice that has been soaked for 4–20 hours in warm 40 °C (104 °F) water before cooking. This stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice, giving rise to a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.[3] Cooked brown rice tends to be chewy; cooked GBR is softer, and preferred particularly by children.

Other Languages
العربية: أرز كامل
čeština: Hnědá rýže
español: Arroz integral
français: Riz complet
galego: Arroz moreno
한국어: 현미
हिन्दी: भूरा चावल
Bahasa Indonesia: Beras merah
italiano: Riso integrale
മലയാളം: ഉണക്കലരി
Bahasa Melayu: Beras perang
Nederlands: Zilvervliesrijst
日本語: 玄米
svenska: Råris
Tagalog: Pinawa
Tiếng Việt: Gạo lứt
粵語: 紅米
中文: 糙米