Brest, Belarus

Brest
Брэст
Brest Montage (2017).jpg
Flag of Brest
Flag
Coat of arms of Brest
Coat of arms
Brest is located in Belarus
Brest
Brest
Location of Brest in Belarus
Coordinates: 52°08′N 23°40′E / 52°08′N 23°40′E / 52.133; 23.667
Country Belarus
RegionBrest Region
DistrictsBrest District
First mention (Primary Chronicle)1019
First mention (Novgorod First Chronicle)1017
Government
 • Chairman of the Brest City Executive CommitteeAleksandr Rogachuk
 • Chairman of the Brest City Council of DeputiesNikolai Krasovsky
Area
 • Total145 km2 (56 sq mi)
Elevation280.4 m (919.9 ft)
Population (2018)
 • Total347,576
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Postal code224000
Area code(s)+375 (0)162
License plate1
WebsiteExecutive committee

Brest (Belarusian: Брэст[2], Polish: Brześć, Russian: Брест Brest, Ukrainian: Берестя Berestia, Yiddish: בריסקBrisk), formerly Brest-Litowsk (Belarusian: Брэст-Лiтоўск; Polish: Brześć Litewski) (Brest-on-the-Bug Polish: Brześć nad Bugiem), is a city (population 347,576 in 2018) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest Region.

The city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941.

During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic. During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. In 1941 it was taken again by the Nazis during Operation Barbarossa. After the war, once the new boundaries between the USSR and Poland were ratified, the city became part of the Byelorussian SSR and as such was part of the Soviet Union until the breakup of the USSR in 1991. Brest is now a part of an independent Belarus.

Etymology

Several theories attempt to account for the origin of the city's name. It might have come from the Slavic root beresta meaning "birch", or "bark". The name of the city could also originate from the Slavic root berest meaning "elm". And finally, the name of the city could have come from the Lithuanian word brasta meaning "ford".[3]

Once a center of Jewish scholarship, the city has the Yiddish name בריסק (Brisk), hence the term "Brisker" used to describe followers of the influential Soloveitchik family of rabbis. The traditional Belarusian name for the city is Берасце (Bieraście).

Brest became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1319.[4] In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth formed in 1569 the town was known in Polish as Brześć, historically Brześć Litewski (literally: "Lithuanian Brest", in contradistinction to Brześć Kujawski). In the late 18th century, during the Partitions of Poland, Brześć was incorporated into the Russian Empire under the name Brest-Litovsk or Brest-Litovskii (Russian: Брест-Литовск, Брест-Литовский, literally "Lithuanian Brest") in the course of the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. After World War I, and the rebirth of Poland, the government of the Second Polish Republic renamed the city as Brześć nad Bugiem ("Brest on the Bug") on March 20, 1923.[5] After World War II the city became part of Soviet Belarus with the name simplified as Brest.

Brest's coat of arms features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow (both silver) on a sky-blue shield. It was adopted on January 26, 1991. An alternative coat of arms has a red shield. Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, first granted Brest a coat of arms in 1554.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Brest
башҡортса: Брест
беларуская: Брэст
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Берасьце
български: Брест (Беларус)
brezhoneg: Brest (Belarus)
հայերեն: Բրեստ
hornjoserbsce: Brest (Běłoruska)
Bahasa Indonesia: Brest-Litovsk
Ирон: Брест
italiano: Brėst
Кыргызча: Брест
лезги: Брест
Latina: Bressicia
lumbaart: Brėst
magyar: Breszt
македонски: Брест (Белорусија)
Dorerin Naoero: Brest
нохчийн: Брест
norsk nynorsk: Brest i Kviterussland
олык марий: Брест
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Brest
polski: Brześć
qırımtatarca: Brest
reo tahiti: Brest
română: Brest, Belarus
русский: Брест
саха тыла: Брэст
Simple English: Brest, Belarus
slovenčina: Brest (Bielorusko)
slovenščina: Brest, Belorusija
српски / srpski: Брест (Белорусија)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Brest, Bjelorusija
татарча/tatarça: Брест
удмурт: Брэст
українська: Берестя
Tiếng Việt: Brest, Belarus
ייִדיש: בריסק
中文: 布列斯特