Braunlage is located on the Warme Bode, a headstream of the Bode river, close to the border with Elend in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. The municipal area stretches along the southeastern rim of the Harz National Park from an elevation of 550 m (1,800 ft) up to 971 m (3,186 ft) at the Wurmberg summit. Other peaks in the vicinity include the Achtermannshöhe and the Hahnenklee Crags.
The town consists of three districts:
* with the village of Königskrug
** with the villages of
Odertaler Sägemühle and Silberhütte
Braunlage is situated at the Bundesstraße B4 running from Braunschweig to Nordhausen and B27 from Blankenburg to Göttingen.
Local buses provide service between Braunlage and the nearby communities of Bad Harzburg, Sankt Andreasberg, Schierke, Wernigerode, Hohegeiß, Bad Sachsa, Nordhausen, Bad Lauterberg, Herzberg, and Clausthal-Zellerfeld.
Braunlage used to be served by the South Harz Railway Company, providing a link to the Harz Narrow Gauge Railways via Sorge, but service was cut in 1958.