Bosnia and Herzegovina ( -/ ( or ) listen /;  abbreviated  B&H; and Bosnian : Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina ( ) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), BiH : Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina ( ) BiH pronounced ), sometimes called [bôsna i xěrtseɡoʋina] Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in located on the Southeastern Europe . Balkan Peninsula is the capital and largest city. It is bordered by Sarajevo to the north and west; Croatia to the east; Serbia to the southeast; and the Montenegro to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Adriatic Sea . In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland, Neum , is a geographically larger region and has a moderate Bosnia , with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, continental climate , has a Herzegovina and plain topography. Mediterranean climate
Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the
age, during and after which it was populated by several Neolithic and Illyrian civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Celtic that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Slavic peoples was established, which evolved into the Banate of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Kingdom of Bosnia , under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottoman Empire brought Ottomans to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by Islam , which lasted up until annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy . In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the World War I and after Kingdom of Yugoslavia , it was granted full republic status in the newly formed World War II . Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, which was followed by the proclaimed independence , lasting until Bosnian War . late 1995
Bosnia and Herzegovina maintains high
levels and is one of the literacy, life expectancy and education , most frequently visited countries in the region projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020.  It is known for its natural environment and  inherited from six historical civilizations, its cultural heritage , cuisine , its eclectic and unique winter sports , music and its architecture , some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe. festivals  The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially,  , as specified in the constitution. constituent peoples are the largest group of the three, with Bosniaks second and Serbs third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified in English as a Croats . Bosnia and Herzegovina has a Bosnian legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the bicameral and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina , with a third region, the Republika Srpska , governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 Brčko District . The country is a cantons and has been a candidate for potential candidate for membership to the European Union membership since April 2010, when it received a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation at a summit in Membership Action Plan . Tallinn The country has been a member of the  since April 2002 and a founding member of the Council of Europe upon its establishment in July 2008. Mediterranean Union 
The first preserved widely acknowledged mention of
is in Bosnia , a politico-geographical handbook written by the De Administrando Imperio Byzantine emperor in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small land" (χωρίον in Constantine VII ) of "Bosona" (Βοσώνα). Greek
The name is believed to have derived from the
of the river hydronym coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna Bosna could derive from *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist Illyrian the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation [...] Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves William Miller Bosniaks [...]".
Herzegovina ("herzog's [land]", from German word for "duke") originates from Bosnian magnate 's title, "Herceg (Herzog) of Hum and the Coast" (1448). Hum, formerly Stephen Vukčić Kosača , was an early medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Zahumlje ( Sanjak of Herzegovina Hersek) within the up until the formation of the short-lived Eyalet of Bosnia in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became commonly known as Herzegovina Eyalet Bosnia and Herzegovina.
On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the
but following the 1995 Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to Dayton Agreement Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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