Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina
Босна и Херцеговина
Anthem: " Državna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"
(English: "The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina")

Location of  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (green)in Europe  (dark grey)
Location of  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (green)

in Europe  (dark grey)

and largest city
Sarajevo [1]
43°52′N 18°25′E / 43°52′N 18°25′E / 43.867; 18.417
Official languages None at federal level
National languages Bosnian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic
Valentin Inzkoa
Dragan Čovićb
Mladen Ivanićc
Bakir Izetbegovićd
Denis Zvizdić
Legislature Parliamentary Assembly
House of Peoples
House of Representatives
Establishment history
c. 1154
c. 1377
c. 1463
• Secession from Austria-Hungary
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 November 1943
• Independence from SFR Yugoslavia
1 March 1992
• Observed [3]
6 April 1992
14 December 1995
• Total
51,129 km2 (19,741 sq mi) ( 125th)
• Water (%)
• 2013 census
3,531,159 [4]
• Density
68.97/km2 (178.6/sq mi)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$42.239 billion [5]
• Per capita
$11,034 [5]
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$14.412 billion [6]
• Per capita
$4,617.75 [6]
Gini (2011) 33.8 [7]
medium ·  18th
HDI (2016) Increase 0.750 [8]
high ·  81st
Currency Convertible mark ( BAM)
Time zone CET ( UTC+1)
• Summer ( DST)
Date format dd. mm. yyyy. ( CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +387
ISO 3166 code BA
Internet TLD .ba
  1. Not a government member; the High Representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton peace agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
  2. Chair of current presidency ( Croat)
  3. Current presidency member ( Serb)
  4. Current presidency member ( Bosniak)

Bosnia and Herzegovina ( ə-/ ( About this sound  listen) or ə/; [10] [11] abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) pronounced  [bôsna i xěrtseɡoʋina]), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bordered by Croatia to the north, and west; Serbia to the east; Montenegro to the southeast; and the Adriatic Sea to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education levels and is one of the most frequently visited countries in the region, [12] projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between 1995 and 2020. [13] Bosnia and Herzegovina is known for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music, architecture and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe. [14] [15] The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a regional rather than ethnic distinction, and the region of Herzegovina has no precisely defined borders of its own. Moreover, the country was simply called "Bosnia" until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century. [16]

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third region, the Brčko District, governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at a summit in Tallinn. [17] Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.


The first preserved widely acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small land" (χωρίον in Greek) of "Bosona" (Βοσώνα). [18] The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". [19] According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation [...] Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks [...]". [20]

The name Herzegovina ("herzog's [land]", from German word for "duke") [19] originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg (Herzog) of Hum and the Coast" (1448). [21] Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek) within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became commonly known as Bosnia and Herzegovina.

On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the name was officially changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Bosnia kap Herzegovina
Basa Banyumasan: Bosnia-Herzegovina
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Босьнія і Герцагавіна
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bosnia y Hercegovina
davvisámegiella: Bosnia ja Hercegovina
estremeñu: Bósnia Ercegovina
Frysk: Bosnje
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बॉस्निया आणि हर्झगोव्हिना
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bosnia lâu Herzegovina
hornjoserbsce: Bosniska a Hercegowina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বসনিয়া বারো হার্জেগোভিনা
Bahasa Indonesia: Bosnia dan Herzegovina
kalaallisut: Bosnia-Hercegovina
къарачай-малкъар: Босния бла Герцеговина
Kongo: Bosna
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bosni ak Erzegovin
لۊری شومالی: بوسنی و ھئرزئگوڤین
Lëtzebuergesch: Bosnien an Herzegowina
Livvinkarjala: Bosnii-Hertsegovinu
Bahasa Melayu: Bosnia dan Herzegovina
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bosnia gâe̤ng Herzegovina
Dorerin Naoero: Boteniya me Erdegobina
Nedersaksies: Bosnië-Herzegovina
Napulitano: Bosnia-Erzegovina
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bosnya a' Hersegowina
norsk nynorsk: Bosnia-Hercegovina
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bosniya va Gersegovina
Papiamentu: Bosnia Herzogovina
Plattdüütsch: Bosnien-Herzegowina
qırımtatarca: Bosna ve Hersek
Gagana Samoa: Bosnia ma Herzegovina
संस्कृतम्: बास्निया
Simple English: Bosnia and Herzegovina
slovenčina: Bosna a Hercegovina
slovenščina: Bosna in Hercegovina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Босна
Soomaaliga: Bosniya
Sranantongo: Bosnikondre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bosna i Hercegovina
tarandíne: Bosnie-Erzegovine
Türkçe: Bosna-Hersek
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بوسنىيە ۋە ھېرسېگوۋىنا
vepsän kel’: Bosnii da Gercegovin
Tiếng Việt: Bosna và Hercegovina
walon: Bosneye
Wolof: Bosni
吴语: 波黑
粵語: 波斯尼亞