Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosna i Hercegovina
Босна и Херцеговина
Anthem: "Državna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"
(English: "National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina")
Location of  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)
Location of  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (green)

in Europe  (dark grey)

Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina
and largest city
43°52′N 18°25′E / 43°52′N 18°25′E / 43.867; 18.417
Official languagesBosnian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional republic
Valentin Inzkoa
Milorad Dodikb
Milorad Dodik
Šefik Džaferovićc
Željko Komšićd
Denis Zvizdić
LegislatureParliamentary Assembly
House of Peoples
House of Representatives
Establishment history
c. 1154
c. 1463
1 December 1918
25 November 1943
1 March 1992
• Independence observed[6]
6 April 1992
18 March 1994
14 December 1995
• Total
51,129 km2 (19,741 sq mi) (125th)
• Water (%)
• 2013 census
• Density
69/km2 (178.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$50.045 billion[8]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$20.720 billion[8]
• Per capita
Gini (2011)33.8[9]
medium · 18th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.768[10]
high · 77th
CurrencyConvertible mark (BAM)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd. mm. yyyy. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+387
ISO 3166 codeBA
  1. The High Representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton peace agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
  2. Chair of current presidency (Serb)
  3. Current presidency member (Bosniak)
  4. Current presidency member (Croat)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (ə-/ (About this soundlisten) or ə/;[12][13] Serbo-Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina [BiH] / Боснa и Херцеговина [БиХ]), sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is an almost landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum. It is bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south; Serbia to the east; and Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, Herzegovina, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.

Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

The country is one of the most frequently visited countries in the region,[14] projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world until 2020.[15] Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music, architecture, and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.[16][17] The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Roma, Poles, Ukrainians, and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons.

Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks highly in terms of human development, and has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors.[18] The country has a social security and universal healthcare system, and primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free. It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008.[19] The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan.[20]


The first preserved widely acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century (between 948 and 952) describing the "small land" (χωρίον in Greek) of "Bosona" (Βοσώνα).[21]

The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water".[22] According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation [...] Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks [...]".[23]

The name Herzegovina ("herzog's [land]", from German word for "duke")[22] originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg (Herzog) of Hum and the Coast" (1448).[24] Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. The region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek) within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became commonly known as Bosnia and Herzegovina.[citation needed]

On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Bosnia kap Herzegovina
Basa Banyumasan: Bosnia-Herzegovina
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Босьнія і Герцагавіна
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bosnia y Hercegovina
davvisámegiella: Bosnia ja Hercegovina
estremeñu: Bósnia Ercegovina
Frysk: Bosnje
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बॉस्निया आणि हर्झगोव्हिना
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bosnia lâu Herzegovina
hornjoserbsce: Bosniska a Hercegowina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বসনিয়া বারো হার্জেগোভিনা
Bahasa Indonesia: Bosnia dan Herzegovina
kalaallisut: Bosnia-Hercegovina
къарачай-малкъар: Босния бла Герцеговина
Kongo: Bosna
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bosni ak Erzegovin
لۊری شومالی: بوسنی ۉ هرزگوڤین
Lëtzebuergesch: Bosnien an Herzegowina
Lingua Franca Nova: Bosnia e Hersegovina
Livvinkarjala: Bosnii-Hertsegovinu
Bahasa Melayu: Bosnia dan Herzegovina
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bosnia gâe̤ng Herzegovina
Dorerin Naoero: Boteniya me Erdegobina
Nedersaksies: Bosnië-Herzegovina
Napulitano: Bosnia-Erzegovina
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bosnya a' Hersegowina
norsk nynorsk: Bosnia-Hercegovina
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bosniya va Gersegovina
Papiamentu: Bosnia Herzogovina
Plattdüütsch: Bosnien-Herzegowina
qırımtatarca: Bosna ve Hersek
Gagana Samoa: Bosnia ma Herzegovina
संस्कृतम्: बास्निया
Simple English: Bosnia and Herzegovina
slovenčina: Bosna a Hercegovina
slovenščina: Bosna in Hercegovina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Босна
Soomaaliga: Bosniya
Sranantongo: Bosnikondre
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bosna i Hercegovina
tarandíne: Bosnie-Erzegovine
Türkçe: Bosna-Hersek
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بوسنىيە ۋە ھېرسېگوۋىنا
vepsän kel’: Bosnii da Gercegovin
Tiếng Việt: Bosna và Hercegovina
walon: Bosneye
Wolof: Bosni
吴语: 波黑
粵語: 波斯尼亞