Bophuthatswana

Republic of Bophuthatswana

Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana
Republiek van Bophuthatswana
1977–1994
Flag of Bophuthatswana
Flag
Coat of arms
Motto: "Tshwaraganang Lo Dire Pula E Ne"  (Tswana)
"If we stand together and work hard we will be blessed with rain"
 a
Anthem: Lefatshe leno la bo-rrarona b  (Tswana)
This Land of our Forefathers
Location of Bophuthatswana in Southern Africa.
Location of Bophuthatswana in Southern Africa.
StatusBantustan
(nominal parliamentary democracy)
CapitalMmabatho
Common languagesTswana
English
Afrikaans
President 
LegislatureParliament
• Parliament
President and National Assembly
• National Assemblyc
24 regional representativesd
12 non-voting specialistsd, e
72 elected MPs
History 
• Self-government
1 June 1972
• Nominal Independence
6 December 1977
• Coup d'état
1988
• Coup d'état
1990
• Insurrection / coup d'état
1994
• Dissolution
27 April 1994
Area
1980[1]44,109 km2 (17,031 sq mi)
Population
• 1980[1]
1,323,315
• 1991[2]
1,478,950
CurrencySouth African rand
Preceded by
Succeeded by
South Africa
South Africa
  1. Bophuthatswana at Flags of the World.
  2. Constitution of the Republic of Bophuthatswana as amended in 1984, Schedule 1.
  3. ibid., Chapter 5.
  4. Appointed.
  5. With or without citizenship.

Bophuthatswana (ə/, meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"),[3] officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan (also known as "Homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) which was declared nominally independent by the apartheid regime of South Africa in 1977. However, its independence, like the other Bantustans (Ciskei, Transkei and Venda) was not recognized by any country other than South Africa.

Bophuthatswana was the second Bantustan to be declared an independent state, after Transkei. Its territory constituted a scattered patchwork of enclaves spread across what was then Cape Province, Orange Free State and Transvaal. Its seat of government was Mmabatho, which today is a suburb of Mahikeng.

During its last days of existence, events taking place within its borders led to the weakening and split of right-wing Afrikaner resistance towards democratizing South Africa.[citation needed]

On 27 April 1994, it was reintegrated into South Africa with the coming into force of the country's interim constitution. Its territory was distributed between the new provinces of the Free State, Gauteng and North West Province.[4]

History

Establishment

The area comprising former native reserves was set up as the only homeland for Tswana-speaking people in 1961 and administered by the Tswana Territorial Authority. It was given nominal self-rule in 1971, and elections were held the following year.

Following the 1977 elections, Lucas Mangope became president after his Bophuthatswana Democratic Party won a majority of seats.[5][6]

Independence and International reaction

The territory became nominally independent on 6 December 1977. Bophuthatswana's independence was not recognized by any government other than those of South Africa and Transkei, the first homeland to gain nominal independence. In addition, it was later internally recognized by the two additional countries within the TBVC-system, Ciskei and Venda.

[A]t last we are no longer helplessly at the mercy of the arbitrary arrogance of those who until this hour trampled our human dignity into the dust.

- Lucas Mangope[7]

The General Assembly denounces the declaration of the so-called "independence" [...] of Bophuthatswana [...] and declares [it] totally invalid.

- United Nations General Assembly[8]

Arguing in favour of independence, President Mangope claimed that the move would enable its population to negotiate with South Africa from a stronger position: "We would rather face the difficulties of administering a fragmented territory, the wrath of the outside world, and accusations of ill-informed people. It's the price we are prepared to pay for being masters of our own destiny."[7]

United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim stated that he "strongly deplored" the establishment of "another so-called independent tribal homeland in pursuance of the discredited policies of apartheid,"[7] and in resolution A/RES/32/105N, passed on 14 December 1977, the United Nations General Assembly linked Bophuthatswana's "so-called 'independence'" to South Africa's "stubborn pursuit" of its policies, and called upon all governments to "deny any form of recognition to the so-called 'independent' bantustans."[8]

During a parliamentary debate in the UK on 6 December 1977, Foreign Secretary David Owen replied in the negative when asked "whether Her Majesty's Government intend to recognise travel documents issued by the authorities of [...] Bophuthatswana for the purpose of admitting visitors to the United Kingdom."[9]

While the majority of news reports echoed these official declarations, there were others which opined that Western critics should "suspend judgment for a time,"[10] and despite its generally critical stance on South Africa's policies, Time magazine wrote that Bophuthatswana had "considerable economic potential" with an expected $30 million a year coming from mining revenues.[7]

Despite its official isolation, however, the government in Mmabatho managed to set up a trade mission in Tel Aviv, Israel,[11] and conducted some business with neighbouring Botswana in an effort to sway attitudes; furthermore, Botswana agreed on "informal arrangements" short of official recognition in order to facilitate cross-border travel.[12]

Bophuthatswana maintained an unofficial embassy in Israel during the 1980s, located next to the British embassy in Tel Aviv. The Israeli Foreign Ministry objected to the embassy's presence, as Israel did not recognize Bophuthatswana as a country. The bantustan's president, Lucas Mangope, was nevertheless able to meet with prominent figures such as Moshe Dayan during visits to Israel.[13]

In the 1982 elections, the Democratic Party won all 72 elected seats. It also won a large majority in the 1987 elections.

Series of coups d'état

On 10 February 1988 Rocky Malebane-Metsing of the People's Progressive Party (PPP) became the President of Bophuthatswana for one day when he took over the government through a military coup. He accused Mangope of corruption and charged that the recent election had been rigged in the government's favour. A statement by the defence force said "serious and disturbing matters of great concern" had emerged, citing Mangope's close association with a multimillionaire Soviet emigre.[14]

Subsequently, the South African Defence Force invaded Bophuthatswana and Mangope was reinstated and continued his term unabated.[6] P. W. Botha, president of South Africa at the time, justified the reinstatement by saying that "[t]he South African Government is opposed in principle to the obtaining or maintaining of power by violence."[14]

In 1990, a second coup attempt took place in which an estimated 50,000 protesters demanded the president's resignation over his handling of the economy. The New York Times reported that seven people had been killed and 450 wounded "after police officers in armoured cars fired their rifles into the crowds and used tear gas and rubber bullets."

After Mangope had asked for help from the South African government, he declared a state of emergency and cut telephone links to the territory "for political reasons," claiming that "normal laws had become inadequate."[15] Human Rights Watch put the number of protesters at 150,000.[16]

Crisis of 1994

In the beginning of 1994 with South Africa heading for democratic elections, the President Lucas Mangope resisted the elections taking place in Bophuthatswana and opposed reincorporation of the territory into South Africa. This resulted in increasing unrest and 40 people were wounded when Bophuthatswana Defence Force troops opened fire on striking civil servants. Mangope took an increasingly hardline stance, rejected Independent Electoral Commission chairman Judge Johann Kriegler's plea for free political activity in the territory,[17] and fired the staff of the Bophuthatswana Broadcasting Corporation, closing down two television stations and three radio stations.

With unrest growing and rumors of ANC supporters massing at Bophuthatswana's borders, Mangope invited General Constand Viljoen, head of the right-wing Afrikaner Volksfront, to immediately assist in keeping the peace. The Afrikaners were hastily rallied and mobilised, including the white supremacist group Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), which took the opportunity to move in and try to restore the apartheid status quo. Uniformed members of the AWB on an armed incursion to the Mmabatho/Mafikeng area shot at unarmed civilians blocking the road, injuring and killing many.[18]

They themselves were shot at by members of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force (BDF) and the Police, and forced to retreat. One member of the AWB travelling back in a blue Mercedes Benz shot at some people along the road, which was then followed by members of the Bophuthatswana police opening fire at the car. The driver, Nicolaas Fourie, and his two passengers promptly surrendered and were disarmed. After the media were allowed to photograph the badly injured prisoners, they were then executed at point blank range by a Bophuthatswana policeman, Ontlametse Bernstein Menyatsoe.[19] These killings effectively spelt the end of white right-wing military opposition to democratic reforms.

On 12 March 1994, Mangope was deposed as President of Bophuthatswana by the South African Government and the Transitional Executive Council. South African Ambassador to Bophuthatswana Dr. Tjaart van der Walt was then appointed as the territory's new administrator.[20][21]

Dissolution

With the end of apartheid after the first multi-racial elections and the coming into force of the Interim Constitution of South Africa on 27 April 1994, Bophuthatswana ceased to exist and once again became part of South Africa.

The 7 enclaves that formed the country were absorbed into the North West Province, Gauteng and the Free State. The capital, Mmabatho, was merged with Mafikeng and the combined city is now the capital of the North-West province.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bophuthatswana
العربية: بوبوتتسوانا
asturianu: Bofutatsuana
башҡортса: Бопутатсвана
čeština: Bophuthatswana
español: Bofutatsuana
Esperanto: Bofutacvano
euskara: Bofuthatswana
français: Bophuthatswana
Bahasa Indonesia: Bophuthatswana
italiano: Bophuthatswana
Nederlands: Bophuthatswana
português: Bophuthatswana
русский: Бопутатсвана
Setswana: Bophuthatswana
Türkçe: Bophuthatswana
українська: Бопутатсвана