Bohol

Bohol
Province
Province of Bohol
Bohol Capitol Building, Tagbilaran
Bohol Capitol Building, Tagbilaran
Flag of Bohol
Flag
Official seal of Bohol
Seal
Anthem: Awit sa Bohol Bohol Hymn[1]
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 9°54′N 124°12′E / 9°54′N 124°12′E / 9.9; 124.2
CountryPhilippines
RegionCentral Visayas (Region VII)
Discovered
Founded
25 March 1565
22 July 1854
Provincial CapitalTagbilaran
Government[2]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorEdgar Chatto (PDP-LABAN)
 • Vice governorDionisio Balite
 • Provincial Board
Area[3]
 • Total4,820.95 km2 (1,861.38 sq mi)
Elevation (Mount Mayana)870 m (2,850 ft)
Population (2015 census)[4]
 • Total1,313,560
 • Density270/km2 (710/sq mi)
 • Voter(2016)[5]798,768
Demonym(s)Boholano
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Districts
Time zonePST (UTC+08:00)
ZIP code6300–6346
IDD:area code+63 (0)38
ISO 3166 codePH
Income class1st class
PSGC071200000
Climate typeTropical monsoon climate
Websitewww.bohol.gov.ph

Bohol l/ is a 1st provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consisting of the island itself and 75 minor surrounding islands.[6] Its capital is Tagbilaran. With a land area of 4,821 km2 (1,861 sq mi) and a coastline 261 km (162 mi) long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines.[7] To the west of Bohol is Cebu, to the northeast is the island of Leyte and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.

The province of Bohol is a first-class province divided into 3 congressional districts, comprising 1 component city and 47 municipalities.[8] It has 1,109 barangays.[9]

The province is a popular tourist destination with its beaches and resorts.[10] The Chocolate Hills, numerous mounds of brown-coloured limestone formations, are the most popular attraction. The formations can be seen by land (climbing the highest point) or by air via ultralight air tours. Panglao Island, located just southwest of Tagbilaran, is famous for its diving locations and is routinely listed as one of the top ten diving locations in the world. Numerous tourist resorts and dive centers dot the southern beaches. The Philippine tarsier, amongst the world's smallest primates, is indigenous to the island.

A strait separates Bohol from Cebu, and both island provinces share a common language, but the Boholanos retain a conscious distinction from the Cebuanos. Bohol's climate is generally dry, with maximum rainfall between the months of June and October. The interior is cooler than the coast.

It was the home province of Carlos P. Garcia, the eighth president of the Republic of the Philippines (1957–1961) who was born in Talibon, Bohol.[11]

On 15 October 2013, Bohol was devastated by a 7.2 magnitude earthquake whose epicenter was 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Sagbayan town. The earthquake, which also hit southern Cebu, claimed 156 lives altogether and injured 374 people. It also destroyed or damaged a number of Bohol's heritage churches.[12][13]

In 2017, the provincial government began initiating the nomination of the entire province to the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network.[14]

History

Early history

A drawing from the Boxer Codex depicting the Pintados.

Bohol was first settled by Australoid people, like the rest of the Philippines. They still inhabit the island today and are known as the Eskaya tribe. Their population also was absorbed into the Austronesian/Malayo-Polynesian peoples who later settled the islands and form the majority of the population. The Austronesian people living on Bohol traded with other islands in the Philippines and as far as China and Borneo.

The people of Bohol are said to be the descendants of a group of inhabitants who settled in the Philippines called pintados or "tattooed ones."[15] Boholanos already had a culture of their own as evidenced by artifacts unearthed at Mansasa, Tagbilaran, and in Dauis and Panglao.

Pre-Hispanic Bohol

Bohol's first indigenous people settled in the Anda peninsula. These people came from northeast Mindanao. These people were responsible for the Anda petrographs which are one of the most important indigenous rock writing in the country. Around the 12th century, a group of people from Northern Mindanao settled in the strait between mainland Bohol and the island of Panglao. Those people came from a nation in northern Mindanao called Lutao (probably the animist kingdom of what will soon be the Islamic Lanao). Those people established the kedatuan (kingdom) of Dapitan in western Bohol because the true indigenous people of Bohol in the Anda peninsula and nearby areas were not open to them, forcing them to establish settlement in the western part of the island. They occupied both shores and the entire island of Panglao. The kedatuan was first built with hardwood on the soft seabed. It engaged in trade with nearby areas and some Chinese merchants.[16]

Alcina tales about a rich nation he called the 'Venice of the Visayas', pointing to the kedatuan of Dapitan at that time. A legend tells of a princess named Bugbung Hamusanum, whose beauty caused her suitor, Datung Sumanga, to raid parts of southern China to win her hand.[17][verification needed]

By 1563, before the full Spanish colonization agenda came to Bohol, the Kedatuan of Dapitan was at war with the Sultanate of Ternate in the Moluccas (who were also raiding the Rajahnate of Butuan). At the time, Dapitan was ruled by two brothers named Dailisan and Pagbuaya. The Ternateans at the time were allied to the Portuguese. Dapitan was destroyed and Datu Dailisan was killed in battle. His brother, Datu Pagbuaya, together with his people fled back to Mindanao and established a new Dapitan in the northern coast of the Zamboanga peninsula. When the Spanish came, the people of Dapitan were influential in the Spanish conquest of the Sultanate of Ternate and in the Christian colonization of northern Mindanao.

Bohol is derived from the word Bo-ho or Bo-ol.[7] The island was the seat of the first international treaty of peace and unity between the native king Datu Sikatuna and Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi on 16 March 1565 through a blood compact alliance known today by many Filipinos as the Sandugo.[18]

Spanish colonial period

The earliest significant contact of the island with Spain occurred in 1565. On 25 March (16 March in the Julian calendar), a Spanish explorer named Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Bohol seeking spices and gold. After convincing the native chieftains that they were not Portuguese (who raided the islands of Mactan in 1521), Legazpi made a peace pact with Datu Sikatuna. This pact was signified with a blood compact between the two men.[19] This event, called the Sandugo ("one blood"), is celebrated in Bohol every year during the Sandugo Festival. The Sandugo or blood compact is also depicted on Bohol's provincial flag and the Bohol provincial seal.[20]

Statue commemorating the "Blood Compact" in Tagbilaran

Two significant revolts occurred in Bohol during the Spanish Era. One was the Tamblot Uprising in 1621, led by Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest. The other was the famous Dagohoy Rebellion, considered the longest in Philippine history. This rebellion was led by Francisco Dagohoy, also known as Francisco Sendrijas, from 1744 to 1829.[19]

Politically, Bohol was administered as a residencia of Cebu. It became a separate politico-military province on 22 July 1854 together with Siquijor. A census in 1879 found Bohol with a population of 253,103 distributed among 34 municipalities.[21]

The culture of the Boholanos was influenced by Spain and Mexico during colonization. Many traditional dances, music, dishes and other aspects of the culture have considerable Hispanic influence.

U.S. intervention and occupation

After the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish–American War, the U.S. bought the entire Philippine islands. However, under the newly proclaimed independent government established by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, which was not recognized by the U.S., Bohol was governed as a Gobierno de Canton.

During the resulting Philippine–American War, American troops peacefully took over the island in March 1899.[22] However, in January 1901, Pedro Sanson led 2,000 in rebellion, due to the harsh treatment imparted by these troops and the destruction they caused.[22] General Hughes led a campaign of repression in October 1901, destroying a number of towns, and threatening in December 1901 to burn Tagbilaran if the rebels did not surrender.[22] Pantaleon E. del Rosario then negotiated the rebel surrender.[22]

On 10 March 1917, the Americans made Bohol a separate province under Act 2711 (which also established most of the other Philippine provinces).

Japanese occupation and liberation

Japanese troops landed in Tagbilaran on 17 May 1942. Boholanos struggled in a guerilla resistance against the Japanese forces. Bohol was later liberated by the local guerrillas and the Filipino and American troops who landed on 11 April 1945.[23]

A plaque placed on the port of Tagbilaran commemorating the liberation reads:

One thousand one hundred seventy two officers and men of the 3rd Battalion of the 164th Infantry Regiment of the Americal Division under the command of Lt. Col. William H. Considine landed at the Tagbilaran Insular Wharf at 7:00 o'clock in the morning of April 11, 1945.

The convoy taking the Filipino and American liberation forces to Bohol consisted of a flotilla of six landing ships (medium), six landing crafts (infantry), two landing crafts (support), and one landing craft (medium-rocket)[clarification needed]. Upon arrival, the reinforced battalion combat team advanced rapidly to the east and northeast with the mission of destroying all hostile forces in Bohol. Motor patrols were immediately dispatched by Col. Considine, Task Force Commander, and combed the area to the north and east, approximately halfway across the island, but no enemies were found during the reconnaissance. Finally, an enemy group of undetermined strength was located to the north of Ginopolan in Valencia, near the Sierra-Bullones boundary.

By 17 April the Task Force was poised to strike in Ginopolan. The bulk of the Japanese force was destroyed and beaten in the ten days of action. Bohol was officially declared liberated on 25 May 1945 by Major General William H. Arnold, Commander of the Americal Division. About this time, most officers and men of the Bohol Area Command had been processed by units of the Eighth United States Army.

On 31 May 1945, the Bohol Area Command was officially deactivated upon orders of Lt. General Robert L. Eichelberger, Commanding General of the Eighth United States Army, together with the regular and constable troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, and the Boholano guerrillas.

During the Second Battle of Bohol from March to August 1945, Filipino troops of the 3rd, 8th, 83rd, 85th and 86th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary captured and liberated the island province of Bohol and helped the Boholano guerrilla fighters and U.S. liberation forces defeat the Japanese Imperial forces under General Sōsaku Suzuki.[citation needed]

Recent history

On 12 April 2017, 11 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) terrorists staged an attack on Bohol. Three soldiers, a police officer and at least 4 of the armed men, including their leader Abu Rami, were killed in the clashes that started at 5 am. Also killed were two Inabanga villagers, though it was not clear whether they were killed in the crossfire or executed by the cornered militants. Security officials relentlessly hunted down the remainder of the ASG who landed in Bohol from the hinterlands to a neighboring island in the province which ultimately led to the neutralization of Abu Asis, the last of the remaining bandits, in May. He was gunned down by police Special Weapons and Tactics operatives in Barangay Lawis, Calape while fighting it out to the end along with Ubayda. Despite their nefarious intents, all 11 ASG members killed in the intrusion were given proper burials under Muslim tradition.[24][25][26]

The tourism industry in Bohol was negatively affected by the ASG militants' incursion on the island,[27][28] though tour operators believe the industry can recover.[29][30]

Other Languages
العربية: بوهول
azərbaycanca: Bohol
Bân-lâm-gú: Bohol
Bikol Central: Bohol
català: Bohol
Cebuano: Bohol
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bohol
dansk: Bohol
Deutsch: Bohol
eesti: Bohol
español: Bohol
Esperanto: Boholo
euskara: Bohol
français: Bohol
galego: Bohol
한국어: 보홀 주
हिन्दी: बोहोल
Ilokano: Bohol
Bahasa Indonesia: Bohol
Basa Jawa: Bohol
Kapampangan: Bohol
кырык мары: Бохоль
lietuvių: Boholis
magyar: Bohol
македонски: Бохол
മലയാളം: ബൊഹോൾ
Nederlands: Bohol
日本語: ボホール州
norsk: Bohol
Pangasinan: Bohol
polski: Bohol
português: Bohol
Scots: Bohol
Simple English: Bohol (province)
српски / srpski: Бохол
svenska: Bohol
Tagalog: Bohol
தமிழ்: போகொல்
Türkçe: Bohol
українська: Бохоль (провінція)
اردو: بوہول
Tiếng Việt: Bohol
Winaray: Bohol
中文: 保和省