Bohemia

Bohemia
Čechy
Historical land
Karlštejn Castle
Flag of Bohemia
Flag
Coat of arms of Bohemia
Coat of arms
Bohemia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic
Bohemia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic
Location of Bohemia in the European Union
Location of Bohemia in the European Union
Country Czech Republic
CapitalPrague
Area
 • Total52,065 km2 (20,102 sq mi)
Population
 • Total6,500,000
 • Density120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)

Bohemia (ə/ HEE-mee-ə;[1] Czech: Čechy;[2] German: About this sound Böhmen ; Polish: Czechy; French: Bohême; Latin: Bohemia; Italian: Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia,[3] especially in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings.

Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, later an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire.[4] After World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland.[5]

The remainder of Czech territory became the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was subsequently occupied as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, In 1969, the Czech lands (including Bohemia) were given autonomy within Czechoslovakia as the Czech Socialist Republic. In 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which became a separate state in 1993 with the split of Czechoslovakia.[5]

Until 1948, Bohemia was an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its "lands" ("země").[6] Since then, administrative reforms have replaced self-governing lands with a modified system of "regions" ("kraje") which do not follow the borders of the historical Czech lands (or the regions from the 1960 and 2000 reforms).[6] However, the three lands are mentioned in the preamble of the Constitution of the Czech Republic: "We, citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia…"[7]

Bohemia had an area of 52,065 km2 (20,102 sq mi) and today is home to approximately 6.5 million of the Czech Republic's 10.5 million inhabitants. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria (both in Austria), in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia (all in Germany), in the northeast by Silesia (in Poland), and in the east by Moravia (also part of the Czech Republic). Bohemia's borders were mostly marked by mountain ranges such as the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, and the Krkonoše, a part of the Sudetes range; the Bohemian-Moravian border roughly follows the Elbe-Danube watershed.

Etymology

In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, with various peoples including the Boii. The Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia (194 BC) and the Battle of Mutina (193 BC). After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps.[8]

Much later Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied (the "desert of the Boii" as Pliny and Strabo called it[9]) as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention[8] was by Tacitus' Germania 28 (written at the end of the 1st century AD),[10] and later mentions of the same name are in Strabo and Velleius Paterculus.[11] The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz "home" (whence Gothic haims, German Heim, English home). This Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobod's kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest.

The Czech name "Čechy" is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, who settled in the area during the 6th or 7th century AD.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Boheme
Alemannisch: Böhmen
العربية: بوهيميا
aragonés: Bohemia
asturianu: Bohemia
Bân-lâm-gú: Bohemia
беларуская: Багемія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Багемія
български: Бохемия
Boarisch: Behmen
brezhoneg: Bohemia
català: Bohèmia
čeština: Čechy
Cymraeg: Bohemia
dansk: Bøhmen
Deutsch: Böhmen
dolnoserbski: Čechy
eesti: Čechy
Ελληνικά: Βοημία
español: Bohemia
Esperanto: Bohemio (lando)
euskara: Bohemia
فارسی: بوهم
français: Bohême
Frysk: Bohemen
Gaeilge: An Bhoihéim
Gàidhlig: Bohemia
galego: Bohemia
한국어: 보헤미아
Հայերեն: Բոհեմիա
hornjoserbsce: Čechi
Ido: Bohemia
Bahasa Indonesia: Bohemia
íslenska: Bæheimur
italiano: Boemia
עברית: בוהמיה
Basa Jawa: Bohémia
ქართული: ბოჰემია
Kiswahili: Bohemia
kurdî: Bohemya
Latina: Bohemia
latviešu: Bohēmija
lietuvių: Bohemija
lumbaart: Boemia
മലയാളം: ബൊഹെമിയ
मराठी: बोहेमिया
مازِرونی: بوهم
Bahasa Melayu: Bohemia
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘိုဟီးမီးယား
Nederlands: Bohemen
Nedersaksies: Bohemen
日本語: ボヘミア
нохчийн: Богеми
norsk: Böhmen
norsk nynorsk: Böhmen
occitan: Boèmia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bogemiya
پنجابی: بوہیمیا
Picard: Bohème
Plattdüütsch: Böhmen
português: Boémia
română: Boemia
русский: Богемия
саха тыла: Богемия
Scots: Bohemie
Simple English: Bohemia
slovenčina: Čechy
ślůnski: Czechy
српски / srpski: Чешка (Бохемија)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Češka (historijska)
suomi: Böömi
svenska: Böhmen
Tagalog: Bohemya
Türkçe: Bohemya
українська: Богемія
اردو: بوہیمیا
Tiếng Việt: Bohemia
West-Vlams: Boheemn
Winaray: Bohemia
吴语: 波西米亚
ייִדיש: בעהמען
Yorùbá: Bohemia
粵語: 波希米亞
中文: 波希米亚