Bob Marley

The Honourable
Bob Marley
OM
Black and white image of Bob Marley on stage with a guitar
Marley performing in 1980
BornRobert Nesta Marley
(1945-02-06)6 February 1945
Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, British Jamaica
Died11 May 1981(1981-05-11) (aged 36)
Miami, Florida, U.S.
Cause of deathMelanoma (skin cancer)
Other names
  • Donald Marley
  • Tuff Gong
Occupation
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • musician
Home townTrenchtown, Kingston, Jamaica
Spouse(s)Alpharita Anderson Marley (m. 1966)
ChildrenSharon Marley Prendergast (adopted)
Cedella Marley
David Nesta "Ziggy" Marley
Stephen Robert Nesta Marley
Rohan Anthony Marley
Julian Ricardo Marley
Ky-Mani Marley
Damian Robert Nesta Marley
Parent(s)Norval Sinclair Marley
Cedella Malcolm Booker
Musical career
Genres
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • guitar
  • percussion
Years active1962–1981
Labels
Associated actsBob Marley and the Wailers
Websitebobmarley.com

Robert Nesta Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter who became an international musical and cultural icon,[1][2][3][4][5] blending mostly reggae, ska, and rocksteady in his compositions. Starting out in 1963 with the group the Wailers, he forged a distinctive songwriting and vocal style that would later resonate with audiences worldwide. The Wailers would go on to release some of the earliest reggae records with producer Lee "Scratch" Perry.[6]

After the Wailers disbanded in 1974,[7] Marley pursued a solo career upon his relocation to England that culminated in the release of the album Exodus in 1977, which established his worldwide reputation and elevated his status as one of the world's best-selling artists of all time, with sales of more than 75 million records.[8][9] Exodus stayed on the British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", "Waiting in Vain", "Jamming", and "One Love". In 1978, he released the album Kaya, which included the hit singles "Is This Love" and "Satisfy My Soul". The greatest hits album, Legend, was released in 1984, three years after Marley died. It subsequently became the best-selling reggae album of all time.

Diagnosed with acral lentiginous melanoma in 1977, Marley died on 11 May 1981 in Miami at age 36. He was a committed Rastafari who infused his music with a sense of spirituality.[10]:242[11] He is credited with popularising reggae music around the world and served as a symbol of Jamaican culture and identity. Marley has also evolved into a global symbol and inspired numerous items of merchandise.

Early life and career

Bob Marley was born 6 February 1945 on the farm of his maternal grandfather in Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica, to Norval Sinclair Marley (1885–1955) and Cedella Booker (1926–2008).[12] Norval Marley was a white Jamaican originally from Sussex, England, whose family claimed Syrian Jewish origins.[13][14][15] Norval claimed to have been a captain in the Royal Marines;[16] at the time of his marriage to Cedella Booker, an Afro-Jamaican then 18 years old, he was employed as a plantation overseer.[16][17] Bob Marley's full name is Robert Nesta Marley, though some sources give his birth name as Nesta Robert Marley, with a story that when Marley was still a boy a Jamaican passport official reversed his first and middle names because Nesta sounded like a girl's name.[18][19] Norval provided financial support for his wife and child but seldom saw them as he was often away. Bob Marley attended Stepney Primary and Junior High School which serves the catchment area of Saint Ann.[20][21] In 1955, when Bob Marley was 10 years old, his father died of a heart attack at the age of 70.[22] Marley's mother went on to marry Edward Booker, an American civil servant. The relationship brought Marley two American brothers: Richard and Anthony.[23][24]

Marley and Neville Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer) had been childhood friends in Nine Mile. They had started to play music together while at Stepney Primary and Junior High School.[25] Marley left Nine Mile with his mother when he was 12 and moved to Trenchtown, Kingston. Cedella Booker and Thadeus Livingston (Bunny Wailer's father) had a daughter together whom they named Claudette Pearl,[26] who was a younger sister to both Bob and Bunny. Now that Marley and Livingston were living together in the same house in Trenchtown, their musical explorations deepened to include the latest R&B from American radio stations whose broadcasts reached Jamaica, and the new Ska music.[27] The move to Trenchtown was proving to be fortuitous, and Marley soon found himself in a vocal group with Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Beverley Kelso and Junior Braithwaite. Joe Higgs, who was part of the successful vocal act Higgs and Wilson, resided on 3rd St., and his singing partner Roy Wilson had been raised by the grandmother of Junior Braithwaite. Higgs and Wilson would rehearse at the back of the houses between 2nd and 3rd Streets, and it wasn't long before Marley (now residing on 2nd St), Junior Braithwaite and the others were congregating around this successful duo.[28] Marley and the others didn't play any instruments at this time, and were more interested in being a vocal harmony group. Higgs was glad to help them develop their vocal harmonies, although more importantly, he had started to teach Marley how to play guitar—thereby creating the bedrock that would later allow Marley to construct some of the biggest-selling reggae songs in the history of the genre.[29][30]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bob Marley
Alemannisch: Bob Marley
አማርኛ: ቦብ ማርሊ
Ænglisc: Bob Marley
العربية: بوب مارلي
aragonés: Bob Marley
armãneashti: Bob Marley
arpetan: Bob Marley
asturianu: Bob Marley
Aymar aru: Bob Marley
azərbaycanca: Bob Marli
বাংলা: বব মার্লে
беларуская: Боб Марлі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Боб Марлі
Bikol Central: Bob Marley
Bislama: Bob Marley
български: Боб Марли
Boarisch: Bob Marley
bosanski: Bob Marley
brezhoneg: Bob Marley
català: Bob Marley
Чӑвашла: Боб Марли
čeština: Bob Marley
Cymraeg: Bob Marley
dansk: Bob Marley
Deutsch: Bob Marley
eesti: Bob Marley
Ελληνικά: Μπομπ Μάρλεϊ
español: Bob Marley
Esperanto: Bob Marley
euskara: Bob Marley
فارسی: باب مارلی
føroyskt: Bob Marley
français: Bob Marley
Gaeilge: Bob Marley
galego: Bob Marley
한국어: 밥 말리
Հայերեն: Բոբ Մառլի
हिन्दी: बॉब मार्ले
hrvatski: Bob Marley
Bahasa Indonesia: Bob Marley
íslenska: Bob Marley
italiano: Bob Marley
עברית: בוב מארלי
Basa Jawa: Bob Marley
ქართული: ბობ მარლი
қазақша: Боб Марли
Kiswahili: Bob Marley
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bob Marley
لۊری شومالی: باب مارلی
latviešu: Bobs Mārlijs
Lëtzebuergesch: Bob Marley
lietuvių: Bob Marley
lingála: Bob Marley
lumbaart: Bob Marley
magyar: Bob Marley
मैथिली: बब मार्ली
македонски: Боб Марли
Malagasy: Bob Marley
മലയാളം: ബോബ് മാർലി
მარგალური: ბობ მარლი
Bahasa Melayu: Bob Marley
монгол: Боб Марли
Nederlands: Bob Marley
Nedersaksies: Bob Marley
नेपाली: बब मार्ली
norsk: Bob Marley
norsk nynorsk: Bob Marley
occitan: Bob Marley
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਬ ਮਾਰਲੇ
پنجابی: باب مارلی
Papiamentu: Bob Marley
Patois: Bab Maali
Piemontèis: Bob Marley
Plattdüütsch: Bob Marley
polski: Bob Marley
português: Bob Marley
română: Bob Marley
Runa Simi: Bob Marley
русский: Марли, Боб
sardu: Bob Marley
Scots: Bob Marley
Sesotho: Bob Marley
shqip: Bob Marley
sicilianu: Bob Marley
සිංහල: බොබ් මාලේ
Simple English: Bob Marley
slovenčina: Bob Marley
slovenščina: Bob Marley
ślůnski: Bob Marley
کوردی: بۆب مارلی
српски / srpski: Боб Марли
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bob Marley
suomi: Bob Marley
svenska: Bob Marley
Tagalog: Bob Marley
Türkçe: Bob Marley
українська: Боб Марлі
vèneto: Bob Marley
Tiếng Việt: Bob Marley
Winaray: Bob Marley
Yorùbá: Bob Marley
粵語: 巴布馬利
Zazaki: Bob Marley
Zeêuws: Bob Marley