Black Sea

Black Sea
Map of the Black Sea with bathymetry and surrounding relief.svg
Coordinates44°N 35°E / 44°N 35°E / 44; 35
TypeSea
Primary inflowsDanube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, Kuban, Rioni, Kızılırmak
Primary outflowsBosphorus
Basin countriesBulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
Max. length1,175 km (730 mi)
Surface area436,402 km2 (168,500 sq mi)
Average depth1,253 m (4,111 ft)
Max. depth2,212 m (7,257 ft)
Water volume547,000 km3 (131,200 cu mi)
Islands10+
Black Sea coast of western Georgia, with the skyline of Batumi on the horizon
A health resort in Sochi, Russia

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.[1] It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. About a third of Europe drains into the Black Sea,[2] including the countries of Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,500 sq mi) (not including the Sea of Azov),[3] a maximum depth of 2,212 m (7,257 ft),[4] and a volume of 547,000 km3 (131,000 cu mi).[5] It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, and features a wide shelf to the northwest. The longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km (730 mi).

Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Burgas, Constanța, Giresun, Istanbul, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Odessa, Ordu, Poti, Rize, Samsun, Sevastopol, Sochi, Sukhumi, Trabzon, Varna, Yalta, and Zonguldak.

The Black Sea has a positive water balance; that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 (72 cu mi) per year through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the Aegean Sea. Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange. The Black Sea outflow is cooler and less saline, and floats over the warm, more saline Mediterranean inflow – as a result of differences in density caused by differences in salinity – leading to a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, and is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.

The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example. Currently the Black Sea water level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows:[6]

On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara [A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli (41°13'N)].
In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia (45°02'N).
Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Хы ФӀыцӀэ
адыгабзэ: Хы ШӀуцӀэ
Afrikaans: Swartsee
Alemannisch: Schwarzes Meer
አማርኛ: ጥቁር ባሕር
Ænglisc: Euxinus
Аҧсшәа: Амшын Еиқәа
العربية: البحر الأسود
aragonés: Mar Negra
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܡܐ ܐܘܟܡܐ
armãneashti: Amarea Lae
arpetan: Mar Nêra
অসমীয়া: কৃষ্ণ সাগৰ
asturianu: Mar Negru
Avañe'ẽ: Para Hũ
azərbaycanca: Qara dəniz
تۆرکجه: قارا دنیز
Bân-lâm-gú: O͘-hái
башҡортса: Ҡара диңгеҙ
беларуская: Чорнае мора
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чорнае мора
български: Черно море
Boarisch: Schwoazzes Meea
bosanski: Crno more
brezhoneg: Mor Du
буряад: Хара тэнгис
català: Mar Negra
Чӑвашла: Хура тинĕс
čeština: Černé moře
corsu: Mari neru
Cymraeg: Y Môr Du
dansk: Sortehavet
dolnoserbski: Carne mórjo
eesti: Must meri
Ελληνικά: Μαύρη Θάλασσα
español: Mar Negro
Esperanto: Nigra Maro
estremeñu: Mari Negru
euskara: Itsaso Beltza
Fiji Hindi: Black Sea
føroyskt: Svartahavið
français: Mer Noire
Frysk: Swarte See
Gagauz: Kara deniz
Gàidhlig: A' Mhuir Dhubh
galego: Mar Negro
贛語: 黑海
ગુજરાતી: કાળો સમુદ્ર
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vû-hói
한국어: 흑해
հայերեն: Սև ծով
हिन्दी: काला सागर
hornjoserbsce: Čorne morjo
hrvatski: Crno more
Bahasa Indonesia: Laut Hitam
interlingua: Mar Nigre
íslenska: Svartahaf
italiano: Mar Nero
עברית: הים השחור
Basa Jawa: Segara Ireng
къарачай-малкъар: Къара тенгиз
ქართული: შავი ზღვა
kaszëbsczi: Czôrné Mòrze
қазақша: Қара теңіз
kernowek: Mor Du
Kiswahili: Bahari Nyeusi
kurdî: Deryaya Reş
Кыргызча: Кара деңиз
кырык мары: Шим тангыж
Ladino: Mar Preta
latviešu: Melnā jūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Schwaarzt Mier
lietuvių: Juodoji jūra
Ligure: Mâ Neigro
Limburgs: Zwarte Zie
Livvinkarjala: Mustumeri
la .lojban.: xekri xamsi
Luganda: Black Sea
lumbaart: Mar Negher
मैथिली: काला सागर
македонски: Црно Море
മലയാളം: കരിങ്കടൽ
მარგალური: უჩა ზუღა
مازِرونی: سیو دریا
Bahasa Melayu: Laut Hitam
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ŭ-hāi
Mirandés: Mar Negro
монгол: Хар тэнгис
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပင်လယ်နက်
Nederlands: Zwarte Zee
Nedersaksies: Zwatte Zee
नेपाली: कृष्ण सागर
नेपाल भाषा: कृष्ण सागर
日本語: 黒海
нохчийн: Ӏаьржа хӀорд
Nordfriisk: Suart Sia
norsk nynorsk: Svartehavet
Nouormand: Néthe Mé
occitan: Mar Negra
олык марий: Шем теҥыз
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qora dengiz
پنجابی: کالا سمندر
Patois: Blak Sii
Piemontèis: Mar Nèir
polski: Morze Czarne
Ποντιακά: Μαύρον Θάλασσα
português: Mar Negro
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qara ten'iz
qırımtatarca: Qara deñiz
română: Marea Neagră
Romani: Kali Deryav
rumantsch: Mar Naira
Runa Simi: Yana hatun qucha
русиньскый: Чорне море
русский: Чёрное море
саха тыла: Хара байҕал
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱦᱮᱸᱫᱮ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ
Scots: Black Sea
Seeltersk: Swotte See
shqip: Deti i Zi
sicilianu: Mari Nìuru
Simple English: Black Sea
slovenčina: Čierne more
slovenščina: Črno morje
Soomaaliga: Badda Madow
српски / srpski: Црно море
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Crno more
suomi: Mustameri
svenska: Svarta havet
Tagalog: Dagat Itim
Taqbaylit: Ilel Aberkan
tarandíne: Mar Gnure
татарча/tatarça: Кара диңгез
тоҷикӣ: Баҳри Сиёҳ
Türkçe: Karadeniz
Türkmençe: Gara deňiz
удмурт: Сьӧд зарезь
українська: Чорне море
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قارا دېڭىز
Vahcuengh: Haijhaek
vèneto: Mar Negro
vepsän kel’: Mustmeri
Tiếng Việt: Biển Đen
Volapük: Blägamel
Võro: Must Meri
文言: 黑海
West-Vlams: Zwarte Zêe
吴语: 黑海
ייִדיש: שווארצער ים
Yorùbá: Òkun Dúdú
粵語: 黑海
Zazaki: Deryao Siya
žemaitėška: Jouduojė jūra
中文: 黑海
डोटेली: काला सागर
ГӀалгӀай: Iаьржа форд
Lingua Franca Nova: Mar Negra