Bivalvia

Bivalvia
Temporal range: Early Cambrian - recent[1][2]
Ernst Haeckel's "Acephala"
"Acephala", from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur (1904)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Mollusca
Class:Bivalvia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subgroups

See text

Shell of the giant clam (Tridacna gigas)
Empty shell of the giant clam
(Tridacna gigas)
Sword razor
Empty shells of the sword razor
(Ensis ensis)

Bivalvia (ə/), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. Bivalves as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore. They include the clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops, and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. Some bivalves, such as the scallops and file shells, can swim. The shipworms bore into wood, clay, or stone and live inside these substances.

The shell of a bivalve is composed of calcium carbonate, and consists of two, usually similar, parts called valves. These are joined together along one edge (the hinge line) by a flexible ligament that, usually in conjunction with interlocking "teeth" on each of the valves, forms the hinge. This arrangement allows the shell to be opened and closed without the two halves detaching. The shell is typically bilaterally symmetrical, with the hinge lying in the sagittal plane. Adult shell sizes of bivalves vary from fractions of a millimetre to over a metre in length, but the majority of species do not exceed 10 cm (4 in).

Bivalves have long been a part of the diet of coastal and riparian human populations. Oysters were cultured in ponds by the Romans, and mariculture has more recently become an important source of bivalves for food. Modern knowledge of molluscan reproductive cycles has led to the development of hatcheries and new culture techniques. A better understanding of the potential hazards of eating raw or undercooked shellfish has led to improved storage and processing. Pearl oysters (the common name of two very different families in salt water and fresh water) are the most common source of natural pearls. The shells of bivalves are used in craftwork, and the manufacture of jewellery and buttons. Bivalves have also been used in the biocontrol of pollution.

Bivalves appear in the fossil record first in the early Cambrian more than 500 million years ago. The total number of living species is about 9,200. These species are placed within 1,260 genera and 106 families. Marine bivalves (including brackish water and estuarine species) represent about 8,000 species, combined in four subclasses and 99 families with 1,100 genera. The largest recent marine families are the Veneridae, with more than 680 species and the Tellinidae and Lucinidae, each with over 500 species. The freshwater bivalves include seven families, the largest of which are the Unionidae, with about 700 species.

Etymology

The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 to refer to animals having shells composed of two valves.[3] More recently, the class was known as Pelecypoda, meaning "axe-foot" (based on the shape of the foot of the animal when extended).

The name "bivalve" is derived from the Latin bis, meaning "two", and valvae, meaning "leaves of a door".[4] Paired shells have evolved independently several times among animals that are not bivalves; other animals with paired valves include certain gastropods (small sea snails in the family Juliidae),[5] members of the phylum Brachiopoda [6] and the minute crustaceans known as ostracods[7] and conchostrachans.[8]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Tweekleppige
asturianu: Bivalvia
Avañe'ẽ: Mymba ijyta mokõi
azərbaycanca: İkitaylılar
Bân-lâm-gú: Siang-khak-kong
беларуская: Двухстворкавыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Двухстворкавыя
български: Миди
brezhoneg: Daougleureged
català: Bivalves
Cebuano: Ukab-ukab
čeština: Mlži
dansk: Muslinger
Deutsch: Muscheln
eesti: Karbid
Ελληνικά: Δίθυρα
español: Bivalvia
Esperanto: Duvalvulo
euskara: Bivalvia
français: Bivalvia
Gaeilge: Débhlaoscach
galego: Bivalvos
한국어: 이매패류
हिन्दी: पटलक्लोमी
hrvatski: Školjkaši
Ido: Bivalvo
Bahasa Indonesia: Bivalvia
interlingua: Bivalvia
íslenska: Samlokur
italiano: Bivalvia
עברית: צדפות
Basa Jawa: Bivalvia
Latina: Bivalvia
latviešu: Gliemenes
Lëtzebuergesch: Muschelen
lietuvių: Dvigeldžiai
Lingua Franca Nova: Bivalva
magyar: Kagylók
македонски: Школки
Bahasa Melayu: Bivalvia
Nederlands: Tweekleppigen
日本語: 二枚貝
Nordfriisk: Twiiskaalagen
norsk: Muslinger
norsk nynorsk: Muslingar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ikki pallalilar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੱਪੀਆਂ
پنجابی: سپیاں
Plattdüütsch: Musseln
polski: Małże
português: Bivalvia
română: Bivalve
Runa Simi: Lakachu
Scots: Bivalvia
Simple English: Bivalve
slovenčina: Lastúrniky
slovenščina: Školjke
српски / srpski: Шкољке
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Školjke
suomi: Simpukat
svenska: Musslor
Tagalog: Bivalvia
తెలుగు: ఆల్చిప్ప
Türkçe: Bivalvia
українська: Двостулкові
West-Vlams: Twêekleppign
Winaray: Bivalvia
粵語: 雙殼綱
中文: 双壳纲