Biomaterial

A hip implant is an example of an application of biomaterials

A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.

Note that a biomaterial is different from a biological material, such as bone, that is produced by a biological system. Additionally, care should be exercised in defining a biomaterial as biocompatible, since it is application-specific. A biomaterial that is biocompatible or suitable for one application may not be biocompatible in another.[1]

IUPAC definition
Material exploited in contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms.[2][a][b][c]

Introduction

Biomaterials can be derived either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical approaches utilizing metallic components, polymers, ceramics or composite materials. They are often used and/or adapted for a medical application, and thus comprises whole or part of a living structure or biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. Such functions may be relatively passive, like being used for a heart valve, or may be bioactive with a more interactive functionality such as hydroxy-apatite coated hip implants. Biomaterials are also used every day in dental applications, surgery, and drug delivery. For example, a construct with impregnated pharmaceutical products can be placed into the body, which permits the prolonged release of a drug over an extended period of time. A biomaterial may also be an autograft, allograft or xenograft used as a transplant material.

Other Languages
العربية: مادة حيوية
català: Biomaterial
Deutsch: Biomaterial
Esperanto: Biomaterialo
فارسی: بیومتریال
français: Biomatériau
한국어: 생물소재
italiano: Biomateriale
Bahasa Melayu: Biobahan
Nederlands: Biomateriaal
日本語: 生体材料
polski: Biomateriał
português: Biomaterial
română: Biomaterial
slovenščina: Biomaterial
svenska: Biomassa
українська: Біоматеріали