Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.

A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has through these three disciplines become successful at explaining living processes. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research.[2] Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells,[3] which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and organism structure and function.[4]

Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.[5]

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.[6] The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins.[7] The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition, and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases.[8] In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.[9] In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control.

History

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.

At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks.[10] However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase (today called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen,[11] while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry.[12][13] Some might also point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism,[10] or even earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier.[14][15] Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins,[16] and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry.[17]

The term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of biology and chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.[18][19] The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903,[20][21][22] while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister.[23]

It was once generally believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance (often referred to as the "vital principle") distinct from any found in non-living matter, and it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life.[25] Then, in 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.[26] Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. Philip Randle is well-known for his discovery in diabetes research is possibly the glucose-fatty acid cycle in 1963.He confirmed that fatty acids reduce oxidation of sugar by the muscle. High fat oxidation was responsible for the insulin resistance.[27]

Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, and its role in the transfer of information in the cell. This part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology.[28] In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information.[29] In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme.[30] In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science.[31] More recently, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference (RNAi), in the silencing of gene expression.[32]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Biochemie
Alemannisch: Biochemie
العربية: كيمياء حيوية
aragonés: Bioquimica
অসমীয়া: জৈৱ ৰসায়ন
asturianu: Bioquímica
azərbaycanca: Biokimya
تۆرکجه: بیوکیمیا
Bân-lâm-gú: Seng-hòa-ha̍k
башҡортса: Биохимия
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bosanski: Biohemija
català: Bioquímica
čeština: Biochemie
Cymraeg: Biocemeg
dansk: Biokemi
Deutsch: Biochemie
eesti: Biokeemia
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español: Bioquímica
Esperanto: Biokemio
euskara: Biokimika
Fiji Hindi: Biochemistry
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galego: Bioquímica
한국어: 생화학
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hrvatski: Biokemija
Ilokano: Biokimika
Bahasa Indonesia: Biokimia
interlingua: Biochimia
íslenska: Lífefnafræði
italiano: Biochimica
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Кыргызча: Биохимия
Ladino: Biokemika
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latviešu: Bioķīmija
Lëtzebuergesch: Biochimie
лезги: Биохимия
lietuvių: Biochemija
Limburgs: Biosjemie
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lumbaart: Biuchimica
magyar: Biokémia
македонски: Биохемија
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монгол: Биохими
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဇီဝဓာတု
Nederlands: Biochemie
नेपाल भाषा: जीवरसायनशास्त्र
日本語: 生化学
norsk: Biokjemi
norsk nynorsk: Biokjemi
Novial: Biokemie
occitan: Bioquimia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Biokimyo
پښتو: بیوشیمي
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ជីវគីមីសាស្ត្រ
polski: Biochemia
português: Bioquímica
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bioximiya
română: Biochimie
русиньскый: Біохемія
русский: Биохимия
саха тыла: Биохимия
shqip: Biokimia
Simple English: Biochemistry
slovenčina: Biochémia
slovenščina: Biokemija
српски / srpski: Биохемија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Biohemija
Basa Sunda: Biokimia
suomi: Biokemia
svenska: Biokemi
Tagalog: Biyokimika
татарча/tatarça: Биохимия
тоҷикӣ: Биокимиё
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vepsän kel’: Biohimii
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吴语: 生物化学
ייִדיש: ביאכעמיע
Yorùbá: Biochemistry
粵語: 生物化學
中文: 生物化学