Bible

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

Many different authors contributed to the Bible. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents.[2] The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible is known in Judaism as the Tanakh. The New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of Gospels, letters, and apocalyptic writings. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect.

Attitudes towards the Bible also differ amongst Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone. This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.

With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the best-selling book of all time.[3][4] It sells approximately 100 million copies annually,[5][6] and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type.

Etymology

The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ultimately from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. ta biblia "the books" (singular βιβλίον, biblion).[7]

Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural (gen. bibliorum). It gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.[8] Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, "the holy books".[9]

The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus", possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia (lit. "little papyrus books")[10] was "an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint).[11][12] Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE.[7] The biblical scholar F.F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia ("the books") to describe both the Old and New Testaments together.[13]

Textual history

By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Kitvei hakkodesh), and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" (in Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια, tà biblía tà ágia) or "the Holy Scriptures" (η Αγία Γραφή, e Agía Graphḗ).[14] The Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne[15] and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions.

The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, and it is known as the Codex Vaticanus. The oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin (Vulgate) Bible is the Codex Amiatinus, dating from the 8th century.[16]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bybel
Alemannisch: Bibel
Ænglisc: Biblioþēce
Аҧсшәа: Абиблиа
aragonés: Biblia
armãneashti: Biblia Ayia
asturianu: Biblia
Aymar aru: Biblia
azərbaycanca: Bibliya
bamanankan: Bibulu
বাংলা: বাইবেল
Bân-lâm-gú: Sèng-keng
башҡортса: Библия
беларуская: Біблія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Біблія
भोजपुरी: बाइबिल
Bikol Central: Bibliya
Bislama: Baebol
български: Библия
Boarisch: Bibel
བོད་ཡིག: གསུང་རབ།
bosanski: Biblija
brezhoneg: Bibl
буряад: Библи
català: Bíblia
Чӑвашла: Библи
Cebuano: Bibliya
čeština: Bible
Chi-Chewa: Baibulo
chiShona: Bhaibheri
chiTumbuka: Baibolo
corsu: Bibbia
Cymraeg: Beibl
dansk: Bibelen
davvisámegiella: Biibbal
Deitsch: Biwwel
Deutsch: Bibel
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބައިބަލް
dolnoserbski: Biblija
eesti: Piibel
Ελληνικά: Αγία Γραφή
español: Biblia
Esperanto: Biblio
estremeñu: Bíblia
euskara: Biblia
eʋegbe: Biblia
فارسی: کتاب مقدس
føroyskt: Bíblian
français: Bible
Frysk: Bibel
furlan: Biblie
Gaeilge: An Bíobla
Gaelg: Yn Vible
Gàidhlig: Bìoball
galego: Biblia
贛語: 聖經
Gĩkũyũ: Biblia
ગુજરાતી: બાઇબલ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Povitr Pustok
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sṳn-kîn
хальмг: Библь
한국어: 성경
Hausa: Baibûl
Hawaiʻi: Paipala
Հայերեն: Աստվածաշունչ
हिन्दी: बाइबिल
Hiri Motu: Baibel
hornjoserbsce: Biblija
hrvatski: Biblija
Ido: Biblo
Ilokano: Biblia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বাইবেল
Bahasa Indonesia: Alkitab
interlingua: Biblia
Interlingue: Bible
Ирон: Библи
isiXhosa: IBhayibhile
isiZulu: IBhayibheli
íslenska: Biblían
italiano: Bibbia
עברית: ביבליה
Basa Jawa: Alkitab
kalaallisut: Biibili
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬೈಬಲ್
ქართული: ბიბლია
kaszëbsczi: Biblëjô
қазақша: Киелі Кітап
kernowek: Bibel
Kinyarwanda: Bibiliya
Kirundi: Bibiliya
коми: Библия
Kongo: Biblia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bib
kurdî: Încîl
Kwanyama: Ombibeli
Кыргызча: Библия
кырык мары: Библи
Ladino: Biblia
Latina: Biblia
latviešu: Bībele
Lëtzebuergesch: Bibel
lietuvių: Biblija
Ligure: Bibbia
Limburgs: Biebel
lingála: Biblíya
Livvinkarjala: Biblii
Luganda: Baibuli
lumbaart: Bibia
magyar: Biblia
मैथिली: बाइबल
македонски: Библија
Malagasy: Baiboly
മലയാളം: ബൈബിൾ
Malti: Bibbja
मराठी: बायबल
მარგალური: ბიბლია
Bahasa Melayu: Alkitab
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Séng-gĭng
Mirandés: Bíblia
монгол: Библи
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သမ္မာကျမ်းစာ
Nāhuatl: Teōāmoxtli
Dorerin Naoero: Bibel
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ai Vola Tabu
Nedersaksies: Biebel
नेपाली: बाइबल
नेपाल भाषा: बाइबल
日本語: 聖書
Napulitano: Bibbia
нохчийн: Библи
norsk: Bibelen
norsk nynorsk: Bibelen
Nouormand: Bibl'ye
Novial: Bible
occitan: Bíblia
Oromoo: Kitaaba
Oshiwambo: Ombimbeli
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Muqaddas Kitob (Xristian Dinida)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਈਬਲ
Pälzisch: Biiwl
Pangasinan: Biblia
پنجابی: بائبل
Papiamentu: Beibel
پښتو: بائبل
Patois: Baibl
Перем Коми: Библия
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្រះគម្ពីរ
Piemontèis: Bibia
Tok Pisin: Baibel
Plattdüütsch: Bibel
polski: Biblia
português: Bíblia
reo tahiti: Pipiria
Ripoarisch: Bibel
română: Biblia
rumantsch: Bibla
Runa Simi: Apuyaya Simin
русиньскый: Біблія
русский: Библия
саха тыла: Биибилийэ
Gagana Samoa: 'O le Tusi Pa'ia
Sängö: Bible
sardu: Bibbia
Scots: Bible
Seeltersk: Biebel
Sesotho: Bebele
Sesotho sa Leboa: Bibele
Setswana: Baebele
shqip: Bibla
sicilianu: Bibbia
සිංහල: බයිබලය
Simple English: Bible
سنڌي: بائبل
SiSwati: LiBhayibheli
slovenčina: Biblia
slovenščina: Sveto pismo
ślůnski: Biblijo
Soomaaliga: Kitaabka quduska
Sranantongo: Bèibel
српски / srpski: Библија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Biblija
Basa Sunda: Alkitab
suomi: Raamattu
svenska: Bibeln
Tagalog: Bibliya
Taqbaylit: Tibibelt
татарча/tatarça: Библия
తెలుగు: బైబిల్
tetun: Bíblia
lea faka-Tonga: Tohitapu
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ma'heónemôxe'êstoo'o
Tshivenda: Bivhili
ತುಳು: ಬೈಬಲ್
Türkmençe: Injil
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Wɛ̈t de Nhialic
українська: Біблія
اردو: بائبل
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىنجىل
vèneto: Bibia
vepsän kel’: Biblii
Tiếng Việt: Kinh Thánh
Volapük: Bib
Võro: Piibli
walon: Bibe
文言: 耶經
West-Vlams: Bybel
Winaray: Bibliyá
Wolof: Biibël
吴语: 圣经
Xitsonga: Bibele
ייִדיש: ביבל
粵語: 聖經
Zazaki: İncil
Zeêuws: Biebel
žemaitėška: Biblėjė
中文: 聖經
डोटेली: बाइबल
Lingua Franca Nova: Biblia