Bhutan

Kingdom of Bhutan

  • དཔལ་ལྡན་འབྲུག་གི་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་  (Dzongkha)
  • Druk Gyal Khap
Anthem: Druk tsendhen
"The Thunder Dragon Kingdom"
A map of the world, centred on East Asia, highlighting Bhutan
A map of east-central Asia, highlighting Bhutan
Capital
and largest city
Thimphu
27°28.0′N 89°38.5′E / 27°28.0′N 89°38.5′E / 27.4667; 89.6417
Official languagesDzongkha
Religion
77.4% Vajrayana Buddhism
22.6% Hinduism
Demonym(s)Bhutanese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• King
Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck
Lotay Tshering
LegislatureParliament
National Council
National Assembly
Formation
• Unification of Bhutan
1616–1634
17 December 1907
8 August 1949
21 September 1971
18 July 2008
Area
• Total
38,394 km2 (14,824 sq mi)[1][2] (133rd)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2019 estimate
741,700[3] (165th)
• 2017a census
727,145[4]
• Density
19.3/km2 (50.0/sq mi) (196th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.701 billion[5]
• Per capita
$9,426[5] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.547 billion[5]
• Per capita
$3,117[5] (130th)
Gini (2012)38.7[6]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.612[7]
medium · 134th
CurrencyNgultrum (BTN)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BTT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+975
ISO 3166 codeBT
Internet TLD.bt
  1. The population of Bhutan had been estimated based on the reported figure of about 1 million in the 1970s when the country had joined the United Nations and precise statistics were lacking.[8] Thus, using the annual increase rate of 2–3%, the most population estimates were around 2 million in the year 2000. A national census was carried out in 2005 and it turned out that the population was 672,425. Consequently, United Nations Population Division reduced its estimation of the country's population in the 2006 revision[9] for the whole period from 1950 to 2050.

Bhutan (n/ (About this soundlisten); Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, romanizedDruk Yul [ʈuk̚˩.yː˩]), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, romanizedDruk Gyal Khap),[10] is a landlocked country in South Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, and the states of Assam and West Bengal in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center.

The independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and it has never been colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire. Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with China. In 2008, Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan. The National Assembly of Bhutan is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy.[11]

The country's landscape ranges from lush subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north, where there are peaks in excess of 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Gangkhar Puensum is the highest peak in Bhutan, and it may also be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world.[12] The wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity.

In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business, and peace; and is the least corrupt country as of 2016. However, Bhutan continues to be a least developed country. Hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports.[13] The government is a parliamentary democracy; the head of state is the King of Bhutan, known as the "Dragon King." Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the United Nations, SAARC, BIMSTEC and the Non-Aligned Movement. The Royal Bhutan Army maintains a close relationship with the Indian Armed Forces.

Bhutan is also notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness.[14]

Etymology

The precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Bod" used for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta "end of Tibet", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture.[15][16][17]

Since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been Druk yul (country of the Drukpa Lineage, the Dragon People, or the Land of the Thunder Dragon, a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect) and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence.[17]

Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Buhtan, Bottanthis, Bottan and Bottanter — began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the Kingdom of Tibet. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle's 1774 expedition — realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed labelling the Druk Desi's kingdom as "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's as "Tibet". The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and then popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet.[18]

Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. One of the earliest Western records of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral, records its name variously as Cambirasi (among the Koch Biharis[19]), Potente, and Mon (an endonym for southern Tibet).[18] The first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name as "Broukpa".[18] Others including Lho Mon ("Dark Southland"), Lho Tsendenjong ("Southland of the Cypress"), Lhomen Khazhi ("Southland of the Four Approaches") and Lho Menjong ("Southland of the Herbs").[20][21]

Other Languages
Acèh: Bhutan
адыгабзэ: Бутан
Afrikaans: Bhoetan
Alemannisch: Bhutan
አማርኛ: ቡታን
Ænglisc: Bhutan
Аҧсшәа: Бутан
العربية: بوتان
aragonés: Bután
armãneashti: Bhutan
arpetan: Botan
অসমীয়া: ভূটান
asturianu: Bután
Avañe'ẽ: Vutã
azərbaycanca: Butan
বাংলা: ভূটান
Bahasa Banjar: Bhutan
Bân-lâm-gú: Bhutan
башҡортса: Бутан
беларуская: Бутан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бутан
भोजपुरी: भूटान
Bikol Central: Butan
Bislama: Bhutan
български: Бутан
Boarisch: Bhutan
བོད་ཡིག: འབྲུག་ཡུལ།
bosanski: Butan (država)
brezhoneg: Bhoutan
буряад: Бутан
català: Bhutan
Cebuano: Bhutan
čeština: Bhútán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bután
chiShona: Bhutan
chiTumbuka: Bhutan
Cymraeg: Bhwtan
dansk: Bhutan
davvisámegiella: Bhutan
Deutsch: Bhutan
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބޫޓާން
dolnoserbski: Bhutan
डोटेली: भूटान
eesti: Bhutan
Ελληνικά: Μπουτάν
español: Bután
Esperanto: Butano
estremeñu: Bután
euskara: Bhutan
Fiji Hindi: Bhutan
føroyskt: Butan
français: Bhoutan
Frysk: Bûtan
Gaeilge: An Bhútáin
Gaelg: Yn Vutaan
Gagauz: Butan
Gàidhlig: Butàn
galego: Bután
Gĩkũyũ: Bhutan
ગુજરાતી: ભૂતાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: भूतान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bhutan
한국어: 부탄
Hausa: Bhutan
Hawaiʻi: Butana
հայերեն: Բութան
हिन्दी: भूटान
hornjoserbsce: Bhutan
Ido: Bhutan
Ilokano: Butan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভুটান
Bahasa Indonesia: Bhutan
interlingua: Bhutan
Interlingue: Bhutan
Ирон: Бутан
íslenska: Bútan
italiano: Bhutan
עברית: בהוטן
Jawa: Bhutan
Kabɩyɛ: Butaŋ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಭೂತಾನ್
Kapampangan: Butan
ქართული: ბჰუტანი
kaszëbsczi: Bhutan
қазақша: Бутан
kernowek: Bhoutan
Kinyarwanda: Butani
Kiswahili: Bhutan
коми: Бутан
Kongo: Bhutan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Boutan
Кыргызча: Бутан
لۊری شومالی: بوٙتان(ڤولات)
Latina: Butania
latviešu: Butāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Bhutan
лезги: Бутан
lietuvių: Butanas
Ligure: Bhutan
Limburgs: Bhutan
lingála: Butáni
Lingua Franca Nova: Butan
Livvinkarjala: Butan
lumbaart: Bhutan
magyar: Bhután
मैथिली: भुटान
македонски: Бутан
Malagasy: Botàna
മലയാളം: ഭൂട്ടാൻ
Malti: Butan
मराठी: भूतान
მარგალური: ბჰუტანი
مصرى: بوتان
مازِرونی: بوتان
Bahasa Melayu: Bhutan
Minangkabau: Bhutan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bhutan
Mirandés: Buton
монгол: Бутан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘူတန်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Butan
Dorerin Naoero: Butan
Nederlands: Bhutan
नेपाली: भूटान
नेपाल भाषा: भुटान
日本語: ブータン
Napulitano: Bhutan
нохчийн: Бутан
Nordfriisk: Bhuutaan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Buuten
norsk: Bhutan
norsk nynorsk: Bhutan
Novial: Butan
occitan: Botan
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭୁଟାନ
Oromoo: Buutan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Butan
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭੂਟਾਨ
पालि: भूटान
Pangasinan: Bhutan
پنجابی: بھوٹان
Papiamentu: Bhutan
پښتو: بوتان
Patois: Buutan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប៊ូតាន
Picard: Bhoutan
Piemontèis: Bhutan
Tok Pisin: Bhutan
Plattdüütsch: Bhutan
polski: Bhutan
português: Butão
Qaraqalpaqsha: Butan
qırımtatarca: Butan
română: Bhutan
rumantsch: Bhutan
Runa Simi: Butan
русиньскый: Бгутан
русский: Бутан
саха тыла: Бутан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ
संस्कृतम्: भूटान
Scots: Bhutan
Seeltersk: Bhutan
shqip: Butani
sicilianu: Bhutan
සිංහල: භූතානය
Simple English: Bhutan
سنڌي: ڀوٽان
SiSwati: IBhuthani
slovenčina: Bhután
slovenščina: Butan (država)
ślůnski: Bhutan
Soomaaliga: Butaan
کوردی: بووتان
Sranantongo: Butankondre
српски / srpski: Бутан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Butan (država)
Basa Sunda: Butan
suomi: Bhutan
svenska: Bhutan
Tagalog: Bhutan
தமிழ்: பூட்டான்
Taqbaylit: Butan
татарча/tatarça: Бутан
తెలుగు: భూటాన్
tetun: Butaun
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏊᏔᏂ
ತುಳು: ಭೂತಾನ್
Türkçe: Bhutan
Türkmençe: Butan
Twi: Butan
удмурт: Бутан (кун)
українська: Бутан
اردو: بھوٹان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بۇتان
Vahcuengh: Bhutan
vèneto: Butan
vepsän kel’: Butan
Tiếng Việt: Bhutan
Volapük: Butän
Võro: Bhutan
文言: 不丹
Winaray: Butan
Wolof: Butaan
吴语: 不丹
Xitsonga: Bhutan
ייִדיש: בהוטאן
Yorùbá: Bhùtán
粵語: 不丹
Zazaki: Butan
Zeêuws: Bhutan
žemaitėška: Butans
中文: 不丹